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Table 1 Nineteenth century investigators' contributions to malaria research and commemorations by national postal services

From: Analysing malaria events from 1840 to 2020: the narrative told through postage stamps

Investigator Year of event Nobel Prize (year) Contribution to malaria research Postal Issue Year of issue References
Pierre Pelletier
(1788–1842) &
Joseph Caventou
(1795–1877)
1820 Isolated quinine from bark of Peruvian trees of genus Cinchona; clinically tested the product and set up manufacturing facilities Yesa France
1970
[27]
François Maillot
(1804–1894)
1836 Brain at autopsy coloured grey with many tiny dark areas. Successful use of quinine sulphate for febrile Algerian army staff (1834) Yesa Algeria
1954
[28]
Heinrich Meckel von Hemsback
(1790–1829)
1847 Recognized pigmented bodies among red cells and in the organs in a patient who died of malaria No [29]
Rudolf Karl Virchow
(1821–1902)
1848 No With Friedrich Frerichs (1919 –1885) associated the black pigment specifically with malaria Yes Germany
1948
[30]
Louis Achille Kelsch
(1841–1911)
1875 Concluded malaria diagnosed by presence of melanin, which was found in blood cells, liver, spleen, and marrow No [31]
Charles Alphonse Laveran
(1845–1922)
1880 Yes
(1907)
Announced to the French Academy of Medicine the discovery of the living malaria parasite Yesa Algeria
1954
[32]
Ettore Marchiafava (1847–1935) 1885 No With Angelo Celli (1857–1914) showed parasites inoculated from man to man and that pigmented granules were external to leukocytes No [33]
Camillo Golgi
(1843–1926)
1885 Yes
(1906)
Described development of segmenting forms in blood of quartan parasites; identified association with cyclical fevers and difference between quartan and tertian fevers Yes Sweden
1966
[34]
William Councilman
(1854–1933)
1885 No Identified with George Sternberg (1838–1915) red cell hyaline-like bodies similar to Laveran’s and causal of malarial fever No [35]
William Osler
(1849–1919)
1886 No Confirmed presence of parasites patients in USA; showed diagnostic value of malaria blood slide in all fevers Yes Canada
1969
[36]
William Welch
(1850–1934)
1886 No Marchiafava and Celli name the parasite plasmodium and Welch P.falciparum as recognized species formed crescents No [37]
Élie Metchnikoff
(1845–1916)
1886 Yes
(1908)
Showed the relation of the parasite to the sporozoa. Developed eosin and methylene blue slide preparations Yes France
1966
[38]
Vasili Danilewsky
(1852–1939)
1886 No Recognized similarity of avian haemosporidia and human parasites; described exflagellation of avian gametocytes (1889) No [39]
Paul Erhlich
(1854–1915)
1891 Yes
(1908)
First to successfully treat malaria using methylene blue Yes Germany
1954
[40]
Patrick Manson
(1844–1922)
1894 No Proposed flagellating bodies in mosquito stomach developed in water when mosquito dies; stated flagellation was extracorporeal phase and proposed transmission by a ‘suctorial insect’; in 1900 showed subjects in London were infected by mosquitoes sent from Italy No [41]
William MacCallum
(1874–1944)
1897 No Observed fertilization of crescent and flagellate forms in avian malaria identifying its sexual reproduction No [42]
Ronald Ross
(1857–1932)
1898 Yes
(1902)
Showed that Proteosoma, a malaria parasite of birds, was conveyed by mosquitoes Yes Sweden
1962
[43]
Giovanni Grassi
(1854–1925)
1898 No With Amico Bignami (1862–1929) and Giuseppe Bastianelli (1862–1959) succeeded in infecting man by mosquitos from malarial regions; suggested preliminary tissue phase existed; showed malarial parasites carried by female Anopheles Yesa Italy
1955
[44]
Robert Koch
(1843–1910)
1899 Yes
(1905)
Initially disbelieved Laveran’s findings. With Kossel identified parasites in lower monkeys (named P. Kochi by Laveran). First to develop ‘carrier’ hypothesis in asymptomatic individuals, and eradication strategy with quinine prophylaxis and surveillance Yes Germany
1944
[45]
  1. a Selected postage stamps shown in Fig. 1