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Table 1 Examples of studies on eave ribbons treated with transfluthrin, demonstrating effects on mosquito densities and biting rates inside and outside human dwellings

From: Insecticide-treated eave ribbons for malaria vector control in low-income communities

SN Study Methods details Mosquitoes % Mortality % Biting reduction Conclusions References
1 Semi field evaluation of the effectiveness of transfluthrin- treated hessian fabric against malaria vector vectors Hessian strip [4 m × 30 cm] impregnated with 10 ml technical grade transfluthrin prepared in soapy water; the strips suspended overnight indoors to dry
Tests were done in large semi-field cage
Laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis Not assessed 99% Hessian materials are affordable, locally produced and are very efficient in delivering transfluthrin vapour in to space to offer protection against mosquito bites Ogoma et al. [41]
2 Field study to quantify the protective efficacy of transfluthrin treated hessian strips against outdoor-biting Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex mosquitoes Hessian strip [4 m × 30 cm] impregnated with 10 ml technical grade transfluthrin prepared in soapy water; the strips suspended overnight indoors to dry
Tests were done in the field
Wild Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex spp. Not assessed 99%
[Anopheles gambiae s.l.]
No diversion of mosquitoes to non-users
Significant protection against outdoor biting mosquitoes
Govella et al. [43]
3 To measure the durability and long term efficacy of transfluthrin treated hessian strips Hessian strip [4 m × 30 cm] impregnated with 10 ml technical grade transfluthrin prepared in soapy water; the strips suspended overnight indoors to dry
Tests were done in the field
Wild Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex spp. Not assessed > 90% Transfluthrin-treated hessian emanators provide safe and long-term protection against outdoor biting
Also protected nearby non-users
Concentration of transfluthrin in an enclosed room was 3 times less than the recommended threshold, hence ensuring maximum safety to users
Ogoma et al. [42]
4 To assess the protective efficacy and acceptability of the different hessian material designs treated with transfluthrin used in in rural communities Hessian strip [0.28 m2] impregnated with 5ml technical grade transfluthrin prepared in soapy water; the strips suspended overnight indoors to dry
Tests were done in the field
Wild Anopheles mosquitoes and Culex spp Not assessed 86–89%
[An. arabiensis]
The treated hessian materials are widely accepted by community members
Transfluthrin-treated hessian materials provide significant protection against outdoor-biting malaria vectors
Masalu et al. [46]
5 Assess the protective efficacy of transfluthrin treated eave ribbons against indoor and outdoor mosquito bites The eave ribbons were made of triple-layered hessian fabric woven using sisal fibres
The ribbons used here were either 15 cm wide and 2.5 m long (for fitting onto the front and back sides of the huts) or 15 cm wide and 1 m long (one pair for fitting on the right side and another pair for the left-side of the huts)
Treatments were done following the procedures described by Ogoma et al.
Laboratory- reared Anopheles arabiensis
Wild Anopheles mosquitoes and Culex spp.
99.5% 99% Eave ribbons provide protection to not only indoor but also outdoors Mmbando et al. [37]
6 To evaluate the efficacy of transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons in protecting rural migratory farmers in in rural Tanzania Eave ribbons were treated following the procedures described by Mmbando et al. Wild Anopheles mosquitoes and Culex spp. Not assessed 77% The eave ribbons are highly acceptable by community members
Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons could be used in addition to ITNs to protect migratory people at high risk of malaria transmission
Eave ribbons also protected against both indoor and outdoor biting Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes
Swai et al. [39]
7 To assess the protective efficacy of treated eave ribbons provided to users and non-users Eave ribbons were treated following the procedures described by Mmbando et al. [37] Laboratory- reared Anopheles arabiensis 100% 83% indoors for users
62% outdoors for users
57% indoors for non-users
48% outdoors non-users
Eave ribbon provide protection even to non-users
The 100% mortality observed at 24 h implies that there is a potential for eave ribbons to have a communal mass effect due to its killing effect, thereby crushing vector population as well as vectorial capacity
Mwanga et al. [40]
8 To assess the additional benefits of combining treated eave ribbons with mosquito traps Eave ribbons were treated following the procedures described by Mmbando et al. [37] Laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis Not assessed 81.2% indoor
63% outdoor
Eave ribbons provide sufficient protection, thus no need of additional traps Mmbando et al. [44]
9 To assess protective efficacy of hessian fabric mats and ribbons treated against mosquitoes Eave ribbons were treated following the procedures described by Mmbando et al. [37] Wild mosquito population 100% 77–81.2% There was 100% mortality of An. funestus mosquitoes which are known to be resistant to pyrethroids. Hence eave ribbons have potential in managing insecticide resistance Masalu et al. [45]
10 Predicting the impact of outdoor vector control interventions on malaria transmission intensity from semi-field studies Statistical modelling of semi field eave ribbons data from Tanzania and Kenya Laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis   41–96% Transfluthrin treated eave ribbons provide both personal and community protection. Denz et al. [49]
11 Transfluthrin Eave-Positioned Targeted Insecticide (EPTI) Reduces
Human Landing Rate of Pyrethroid Resistant and Susceptible Malaria
Vectors in a Semi Field Simulated Peri-domestic Space
Eave ribbons were treated following the procedures described by Mmbando et al. [37] Laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis 80% 68% Transfluthrin treated eave ribbons have potential tackle the challenges of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors Tambwe et al. [56]
12 Evaluating putative repellent ‘push’ and attractive ‘pull’ components for manipulating the odour orientation of host-seeking malaria vectors in the peri-domestic space Hessian strip [21 m × 0.05 cm] impregnated with 10 ml technical grade transfluthrin prepared in soapy water; the strips suspended overnight indoors to dry
Tests were done in large semi-field cage
Laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis Not assessed 94% Transfluthrin treated hessian fabric strips around eave gaps provide significant protection from mosquito bites in the peri-domestic spaces. Njoroge et al. [57]
  1. The table focuses primarily on hessian-based eave ribbons and excludes other eave-based technologies