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Table 2 Malaria plasma EV cargo from experimental malaria models and human field studies

From: Extracellular vesicles in malaria: an agglomeration of two decades of research

Plasmodium species Biomolecular cargo Important findings in
malaria derived EVsa
References
P. yoelii Proteins EVs carry reticulocyte exosome associated proteins including transferrin receptor & heat shock 70 protein
No markers for microvesicles or apoptotic vesicles detected
Parasite proteins with possible antigenic properties identified
Parasite proteins important in host-parasite interactions identified
[54]
P. yoelii Proteins EVs carry reticulocyte exosome associated proteins including transferrin receptor & heat shock 70 protein
Parasite proteins with possible antigenic properties identified
Parasite proteins important in host-parasite interactions identified
[55]
P. vivax Proteins Human and parasite proteins
Suitable model for identifying biomarkers of hypnozoite infection
[56]b
P. berghei Proteins EVs contain differentially abundant proteins important for CM pathogenesis
EVs contain parasite proteins
[57]
P. berghei
P. yoelii
miRNA EVs contain significantly dysregulated miRNA species that are important for CM pathogenesis [58]
P. vivax Proteins Parasite proteins present exclusively in infection derived EVs [59]
P. falciparum
P. vivax
miRNA EVs contain significantly upregulated miRNAs important in malaria pathway and host-parasite interactions [60]
P. falciparum Proteins EVs contain proteins associated with complement activation, coagulation & inflammation
EVs in infection exclusively contain human RAB proteins that regulate intracellular processes and cytokine secretion
EVs contain parasite proteins associated with biology & virulence
[61]
  1. EBA Erythrocyte Binding Antigen, PS phosphatidylserine, PI phosphatidylinositol, PC phosphatidylcholine, uREVs uninfected RBC derived EVs, iREVs infected RBC derived EVs
  2. aNot an exclusive summary
  3. bHuman liver chimeric mouse model designed to identify biomarkers of hypnozoite infection