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Table 3 Malaria EV cargo derived from EVs of in vitro (cell cultured) iRBCs

From: Extracellular vesicles in malaria: an agglomeration of two decades of research

Plasmodium species Biomolecular cargo Important findings in
malaria derived EVsa
P. falciparum Proteins,
nucleic acids (small RNA, mRNA)
Abundant RBC lipid raft proteins
Abundant resident Maurer’s cleft parasite proteins
Parasite proteins involved in RBC invasion
Abundant immunogenic EBA on EV surface
EV content is conserved across P. falciparum strains
miRNA species may be involved in gametocytogenesis
P. falciparum Nucleic acids
EVs contain human & parasite small RNA
HmiR-451a is the most abundant specie
Majority of detected miRNA regulate cell adhesion
Ring stage iREVs contain plasmodial gDNA
iREV-plasmodial gDNA triggers an innate immune response
P. falciparum Nucleic acids (miRNA) hmiR-451a species is present in abundance
hmiR-451a is functional and complexed with hAgo-2
P. falciparum Proteins RBC proteins include haemoglobin and those associated with the membrane
Significant enrichment of resident Maurer’s cleft parasite proteins and other “virulence associated proteins”
Important knob-associated parasite proteins also found
P. falciparum Proteins PfEMP1 in ring stage iREVs [114]
P. falciparum Nucleic acids
Human miR-451, miR-486, miR-181a identified in iREVs & uREVs
Significantly higher hmiR-451 levels in iREVs than uREVs
Human miRNAs are complexed with Ago-2
P. falciparum Nucleic acid
(small RNA)
>90 % of iREV small RNA content is human
Human miRNAs, tRNAs, Y-RNAs, vault RNAs, snoRNAs and piRNAs present
HmiR-451a is the most abundant
Host & plasmodial small RNAs involved in drug resistance detected
P. falciparum Lipids Enrichment of PS & PI
Enrichment of sphingolipids with signaling functions important in immunomodulation
P. falciparum Lipids No significant difference between the lipid profile of iREVs and uREVs
Enrichment of PC
  1. EBA Erythrocyte Binding Antigen, PS phosphatidylserine, PI phosphatidylinositol, PC phosphatidylcholine, uREVs uninfected RBC derived EVs, iREVs  infected RBC derived EVs
  2. aNot an exclusive summary
  3. bHuman liver chimeric mouse model designed to identify biomarkers of hypnozoite infection