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Table 2 Measurement of the associations with low Apgar at 5-min according to maternal characteristics, malaria risk factors, and newborn health (Model A1)

From: Causal effects on low Apgar at 5-min and stillbirth in a malaria maternal–fetal health outcome investigation: a large perinatal surveillance study in the Brazilian Amazon

  Univariable logistic regression Multivariable logistic regression
p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI
Outcome
 Low Apgar at 5-min (score < 7)       
Maternal pregnancy and health characteristics
 Advanced age (> 35 years) or young (< 15 years) 0.99 1.01 0.48–2.11    
 Number of previous deliveries (n = 1 to 4) 0.55 1.15 0.73–1.82    
 Attended ≥ 6 obstetrics consults during pregnancy < 0.001 0.21 0.13–0.34 0.003 0.41 0.23–0.74
 Diagnosed with perinatal anaemia (Hgb < 11 g/dL) 0.009 1.85 1.17–2.94 0.294 1.34 0.78–2.3
 Presented with perinatal fever < 0.001 4.21 2.26–7.86 = 0.001 3.47 1.65–7.29
 Diagnosed with malaria prior to current pregnancy 0.78 1.07 0.67–1.69    
 Diagnosed with malaria during pregnancy 0.79 1.13 0.48–2.62    
 Diagnosed with perinatal malaria 0.13 3.13 0.73–13.5    
 No malaria testing during pregnancy 0.77 1.1 0.62–1.91    
Maternal malaria risk factors
 Resides in Cruzeiro do Sul 0.09 1.48 0.94–2.35    
 Resides in rural area 0.46 1.19 0.75–1.9    
 Illiterate or has secondary education as highest level 0.007 1.88 1.19–2.98 0.087 1.62 0.93–2.81
 Never used repellent in pregnancy 0.311 1.3 0.78–2.15    
 Never used a bed net during pregnancy 0.165 0.7 0.43–1.16    
 No air conditioning unit in home 0.258 1.5 0.74–3.03    
Newborn health at delivery
 Born prematurely (< 37 weeks gestational age) < 0.001 13.41 8.2–21.8 0.002 3.18 1.52–6.65
 Low birth weight at delivery (< 2500 g) < 0.001 20.4 12.6–33.1 0.002 3.67 1.6–8.39
 Low head circumference (< 33 cm) < 0.001 9.2 5.6–15.1 0.035 2.15 1.06–4.39
Control variable
 Haemoglobin blood test timing 0.725 0.92 0.56–1.49 0.997 0.999 0.567–1.76