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Table 2 Household level risk factors for Plasmodium infection in two districts of Meghalaya state, India

From: Household and individual level risk factors associated with declining malaria incidence in Meghalaya, India: implications for malaria elimination in low-endemic settings

  West Jaintia Hills
(N = 468 households)
West Khasi Hills
(N = 351 households)
  OR (95% CI)* P-value* OR (95% CI)* P-value*
Presence of electricity 1.73 (0.26–11.69) 0.573 1.89 (0.40–8.99) 0.424
Presence of mobile phone 0.53 (0.11–2.57) 0.432 2.21 (0.72–6.81) 0.165
Walls made of mud/thatch/wood^ 0.38 (0.03–4.86) 0.456 0.73 (0.25–2.13) 0.563
Roof made of thatch/tile 2.06 (0.41–10.40) 0.383
Presence of animals
 Any animal 1.05 (0.25–4.34) 0.949 1.89 (0.65–5.47) 0.241
 Pigs 1.39 (0.32–6.03) 0.661 0.80 (0.20–3.16) 0.750
 Poultry 2.06 (0.49–8.64) 0.323 1.10 (0.38–3.18) 0.857
 Buffalo/cow 3.67 (0.37–37.00) 0.269
Animals living inside the house 0.54 (0.12–2.41) 0.421 1.33 (0.46–3.83) 0.600
Mosquito always present 0.92 (0.22–3.92) 0.913 2.23 (0.72–6.91) 0.163
Presence of mosquito repellent coils in household 0.55 (0.14–2.16) 0.390 2.43 (0.80–7.34) 0.115
Presence of mosquito repellent mat tablets in household 0.50 (0.08–3.07) 0.454 0.92 (0.11–7.79) 0.938
Presence of mosquito repellent vaporizers in household 2.52 (0.44–14.59) 0.301 0.94 (0.11–8.28) 0.955
Method for reducing mosquito burden
 Insecticide spray 3.48 (0.96–12.61) 0.058
 Burning neem leaves or cow dung 1.00 (0.10–10.04) 0.997
 Clear bushes around the house 0.62 (0.07–5.80) 0.671
 Clear stagnant water pools 1.35 (0.16–11.36) 0.781
 Keep windows/doors closed in evening 0.35 (0.06–1.94) 0.228
 Screening of windows 1.48 (0.36–5.94) 0.582
Presence of chalk markings in house indicating DDT spraying 2.23 (0.48–10.30) 0.303
  1. *The OR and 95% CIs were obtained from multilevel logistic regression models, with Plasmodium positivity at the individual level as the outcome variable, and household and individual level factors as the exposure variables
  2. ^Reference category: wall made of brick/concrete/stone
  3. Reference category: roof made of concrete/tin
  4. Odds ratio (95% CI) and P-value could not be estimated because of separation due to small number of participants with Plasmodium infection