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Table 3 Individual level risk factors for Plasmodium infection of study participants in two districts of Meghalaya state, India

From: Household and individual level risk factors associated with declining malaria incidence in Meghalaya, India: implications for malaria elimination in low-endemic settings

  West Jaintia Hills
(N = 1463 Individuals)
West Khasi Hills
(N = 1234 Individuals)
OR (95% CI)* P-value* OR (95% CI)* P-value*
Age (in years) 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 0.515 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 0.693
Male sex 0.45 (0.13–1.56) 0.207 0.66 (0.23–1.84) 0.424
Below primary education^ 0.65 (0.20–2.12) 0.480 0.68 (0.24–1.89) 0.456
Occupation: Cultivator/Agricultural labourer 0.89 (0.24–3.27) 0.861 0.87 (0.27–2.86) 0.824
Reported history of malaria in past 12 months 8.84 (1.03–75.15) 0.046
Travelled in past 14 days 10.06 (1.85–55.68) 0.008
Stayed in field for one or more night(s) 1.38 (0.11–17.06) 0.800 4.60 (0.47–45.42) 0.192
Knowledge of malaria signs/symptoms 0.46 (0.04–4.83) 0.515 0.51 (0.11–2.32) 0.381
Leaves house at night to use toilet 1.05 (0.25–4.45) 0.944 2.08 (0.73–5.89) 0.057
Uses bed net every night 0.90 (0.22–3.72) 0.889 1.02 (0.26–3.96) 0.978
Never cover arms/legs against mosquitoes 1.05 (0.29–3.84) 0.943 0.39 (0.13–1.22) 0.106
Uses insecticidal cream against mosquitoes 0.68 (0.08–5.83) 0.726
Other products used to prevent bites
 Mosquito repellent coil 0.66 (0.17–2.60) 0.549 1.68 (0.56–4.99) 0.351
 Mosquito repellent mat tablet 0.52 (0.09–3.16) 0.477
 Mosquito repellent vaporizer 2.95 (0.50–17.51) 0.233 0.71 (0.08–6.14) 0.759
 Burn other materials 0.92 (0.09–9.30) 0.946
Experienced fever in the past 48 h 1.17 (0.14–9.91) 0.884
  1. *The OR and 95% CIs were obtained from multilevel logistic regression models, with Plasmodium positivity at the individual level as the outcome variable, and household and individual level factors as the exposure variables
  2. ^Individuals with no formal education or completed preschool/ kindergarten
  3. Odds ratio (95% CI) and P-value could not be estimated because of separation due to small number of participants with Plasmodium infection