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Table 5 Household level mosquito risk and prevention methods in 820 households from two districts of Meghalaya state, India

From: Household and individual level risk factors associated with declining malaria incidence in Meghalaya, India: implications for malaria elimination in low-endemic settings

Characteristic West Jaintia Hills (N = 468) West Khasi Hills (N = 352)
Mosquitoes present in house
 Yes, always 263 (56.2%) 109 (31.0%)
 Yes, sometimes 125 (26.7%) 102 (29.0%)
 Yes, rainy season only 80 (17.1%) 140 (39.7%)
 No 0 (0%) 1 (0.3%)
Methods used to reduce mosquitoes
 Clear bushes around the house 467 (99.8%) 337 (96.0%)
 Clear stagnant water pools 466 (99.6%) 333 (94.8%)
 Keeping windows/doors closed in evening 467 (99.8%) 334 (94.9%)
 Screening of windows 10 (2.1%) 147 (42.0%)
 Insecticide spray 2 (0.4%) 20 (5.7%)
 Use larvicide in ponds 2 (0.4%) 3 (0.9%)
 Burn other materials 3 (0.6%) 45 (12.8%)
ITN presence, condition, treatment
 Any ITNs present in house 466 (99.6%) 343 (98.9%)
 Number of ITNs present: Median (IQR)* 2 (2–3) 3 (2–3)
 Duration (years) of ITN use: Mean (SD)* 2.0 (0.2) 2.2 (0.8)
 Washing of ITN by HH members* 463 (99.4%) 260 (74.9%)
 Wash frequency: Median (IQR)^ 4 (3–4) 2 (2–3)
 Holes/defects in ITN* 400 (86.2%) 233 (68.3%)
 Repair of holes/defects in ITN 392 (98.0%) 221 (94.9%)
DDT spraying by NVBDCP (HH marked) 25 (5.3%) 117 (49.4%)
IRS spraying of house (< 12 months)
 Yes 29 (6.2%) 163 (46.3%)
 No 439 (93.8%) 181 (51.4%)
 Don't know 0 (0%) 8 (2.3%)
Reason for not using IRS in house
 Spray team did not visit the household 391 (89.1%) 32 (17.7%)
 Presence of children 14 (3.2%) 34 (18.8%)
 Not at home at the time of spraying 10 (2.3%) 22 (12.2%)
 Don't like the smell 16 (3.6%) 22 (12.2%)
 Stains the walls 1 (0.2%) 10 (5.5%)
 Dangerous for silk production 9 (2.1%) 0 (0%)
Mosquito repellent coils present in house 264 (56.4%) 101 (28.7%)
Time of day coils used in house
 Night time 162 (61.4%) 62 (61.4%)
 Evening 157 (59.5%) 51 (50.5%)
 Daytime 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Frequency of mosquito repellent coil use
 Always 21 (8.0%) 25 (25.3%)
 Sometimes 242 (92.0%) 72 (72.7%)
 Rarely 0 (0%) 2 (2.0%)
  1. *For the households reporting presence of ITN
  2. ^For the households reporting washing of ITN
  3. For the households reporting holes/defects in ITN
  4. For the households reporting presence of coils