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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants (N = 6293), households (N = 5619) and fokontany (N = 182)

From: Identification of factors associated with residual malaria transmission using school-based serological surveys in settings pursuing elimination

Fokontany-level variables Mean (range) Individual-level variables n (%)
Climatic, environmental and land cover RDT positive 53 (0.8)
 NDVI lag-1 0.5 (0.3–0.8) PfAMA1 Ab seropositive 443 (7.0)
 LST Day lag-1 (°C) 25.1 (18.1–30.4) Age (years)
 Forests (%) 1.7 (0.0–65.2) 2–8 2,310 (36.7)
 Woodlands (%) 12.2 (0.0–100.0) 9–10 1,763 (28.0)
 Grasslands or cereals (%) 80.0 (0.0–100.0) 11–12 1,549 (24.6)
 Wet, croplands or mosaics (%) 2.6 (0.0–100.0) 13–14 671 (10.7)
 Other land cover classes (%)a 0.2 (0.0–20.0) Sex (male) 2,984 (47.4)
 Elevation (m) 1305.3 (773.3–2140.7) Fever last 2 weeks 481 (7.6)
Travel in last 2 months 213 (3.4)
 School RDT prevalence, % (SD) 0.9 (2.8) Use of ITN last night 2,792 (44.4)
 PfAMA1 Ab seroprevalence, % (SD) 7.2 (11.0) Presence of RDT positive household member 24 (0.4)
 Distance > 5 km from health facility, n (%) 59 (32.4)   
Household-level variables   
 No. of members, mean (SD) 6.5 (2.3)   
 No. of ITNs, n (%)   
  0 2,148 (38.2)   
  1 357 (6.4)   
  2–4 2990 (53.2)   
  5–10 124 (2.2)   
  1. NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index at the previous month; LST daytime Land Surface Temperature and emissivity composites at the previous month; ITNs insecticide-impregnated mosquito-nets; SD standard deviation
  2. aShrublands, wetlands, barren, or water bodies land cover