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  1. Content type: Commentary

    Malaria is a major public health problem for countries in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). While the endemicity of malaria varies enormously across this region, many of the countries have dist...

    Authors: Joaquim DaSilva, Brad Garanganga, Vonai Teveredzi, Sabine M Marx, Simon J Mason and Stephen J Connor

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:37

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  2. Content type: Research

    Public health strategies are needed to curb antimalarial drug resistance. Theoretical argument points to an association between malaria transmission and drug resistance although field evidence remains limited....

    Authors: Sungano Mharakurwa, Susan L Mutambu, Robert Mudyiradima, Tawanda Chimbadzwa, Steven K Chandiwana and Karen P Day

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:35

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  3. Content type: Research

    It was unknown whether the main reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, which infects mosquitoes in Thailand, was (a) in people feeling sufficiently ill with malaria to come to a clinic or (b) in...

    Authors: Aree Pethleart, Somsak Prajakwong, Wannapa Suwonkerd, Boontawee Corthong, Roger Webber and Christopher Curtis

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:34

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  4. Content type: Research

    Climate is a major driving force behind malaria transmission and climate data are often used to account for the spatial, seasonal and interannual variation in malaria transmission.

    Authors: Moshe B Hoshen and Andrew P Morse

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:32

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  5. Content type: Research

    The ability of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to adhere to the microvasculature endothelium is thought to play a causal role in malaria pathogenesis. Cytoadhesion to endothelial receptors is generall...

    Authors: Lisa Sharling, Anders Enevold, Kordai MP Sowa, Trine Staalsoe and David E Arnot

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:31

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  6. Content type: Methodology

    Both host and pathogen factors contribute to disease outcome in Plasmodium falciparum infection. The feasibility of studying the P. falciparum in vivo transcriptome to understand parasite transcriptional response...

    Authors: Johanna P Daily, Karine G Le Roch, Ousmane Sarr, Xuemin Fang, Yingyao Zhou, Omar Ndir, Soulyemane Mboup, Ali Sultan, Elizabeth A Winzeler and Dyann F Wirth

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:30

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  7. Content type: Research

    Malaria is one of the oldest and deadliest infectious diseases in humans. Many mathematical models of malaria have been developed during the past century, and applied to potential interventions. However, malar...

    Authors: Jean-Marc O Depinay, Charles M Mbogo, Gerry Killeen, Bart Knols, John Beier, John Carlson, Jonathan Dushoff, Peter Billingsley, Henry Mwambi, John Githure, Abdoulaye M Toure and F Ellis McKenzie

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:29

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  8. Content type: Research

    The circumsporozoite surface protein is the primary target of human antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, these antibodies are predominantly directed to the major repetitive epitope (Asn-Pro-Asn-A...

    Authors: Jonathan A Chappel, William O Rogers, Stephen L Hoffman and Angray S Kang

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:28

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  9. Content type: Research

    Once malaria occurs, deaths can be prevented by prompt treatment with relatively affordable and efficacious drugs. Yet this goal is elusive in Africa. The paradox of a continuing but easily preventable cause o...

    Authors: Don de Savigny, Charles Mayombana, Eleuther Mwageni, Honorati Masanja, Abdulatif Minhaj, Yahya Mkilindi, Conrad Mbuya, Harun Kasale and Graham Reid

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:27

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  10. Content type: Research

    The relationship between the burden of uncomplicated malaria and transmission intensity is unclear and a better understanding of this relationship is important for the implementation of intervention programmes.

    Authors: John PA Lusingu, Lasse S Vestergaard, Bruno P Mmbando, Chris J Drakeley, Caroline Jones, Juma Akida, Zacharia X Savaeli, Andrew Y Kitua, Martha M Lemnge and Thor G Theander

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:26

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  11. Content type: Research

    A refugee shelter that is treated with insecticide during manufacture would be useful for malaria control at the acute stage of an emergency, when logistic problems, poor co-ordination and insecurity limit the...

    Authors: Kate Graham, Hameed Rehman, Mushtaq Ahmad, Mohammed Kamal, Irfanullah Khan and Mark Rowland

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:25

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  12. Content type: Review

    The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum has a complex life cycle in which asexual multiplication in the vertebrate host alternates with an obligate sexual reproduction in the anopheline mosquito. Apart from the appar...

    Authors: Arthur M Talman, Olivier Domarle, F Ellis McKenzie, Frédéric Ariey and Vincent Robert

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:24

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  13. Content type: Research

    The evolution and spread of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s, the major malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa, is of great concern owing to the importance of pyrethroid-treated nets in the WHO global...

    Authors: Vincent Corbel, Fabrice Chandre, Cécile Brengues, Martin Akogbéto, Frédéric Lardeux, Jean Marc Hougard and Pierre Guillet

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:22

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  14. Content type: Research

    Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is caused by Plasmodium falciparum- infected erythrocytes that can sequester in placental intervillous space by expressing particular variant surface antigens (VSA) that can med...

    Authors: Ayman Khattab, Christina Reinhardt, Trine Staalsoe, Nadine Fievet, Peter G Kremsner, Philippe Deloron, Lars Hviid and Mo-Quen Klinkert

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:21

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  15. Content type: Research

    A study was carried out in a village of the mainland region of Equatorial Guinea in order to ascertain a) which members of Anopheles gambiae complex could be involved in malaria transmission and b) the rate of in...

    Authors: Marta Moreno, Jorge Cano, Sisinio Nzambo, Leonardo Bobuakasi, Jesús N Buatiche, Melchor Ondo, Francisco Micha and Agustín Benito

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:20

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  16. Content type: Research

    Insecticide-treated nets represent currently a key malaria control strategy, but low insecticide re-treatment rates remain problematic. Olyset™ nets are currently one of two long-lasting insecticidal nets reco...

    Authors: Adriana Tami, Godfrey Mubyazi, Alison Talbert, Hassan Mshinda, Stéphane Duchon and Christian Lengeler

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:19

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  17. Content type: Research

    Studies on Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte development and dynamics have almost exclusively focused on patients treated with antimalarial drugs, while the majority of parasite carriers in endemic areas are asymp...

    Authors: J Teun Bousema, Louis C Gouagna, Chris J Drakeley, Annemiek M Meutstege, Bernard A Okech, Ikupa NJ Akim, John C Beier, John I Githure and Robert W Sauerwein

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:18

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  18. Content type: Research

    Plasmodium falciparum morbid and fatal risks are considerably higher in areas supporting parasite prevalence ≥25%, when compared with low transmission areas supporting parasite prevalence below 25%. Recent descri...

    Authors: Judith A Omumbo, Simon I Hay, Carlos A Guerra and Robert W Snow

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:17

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  19. Content type: Methodology

    The aim of this study was to develop site-specific antibodies as a tool to capture Plasmodium falciparum-dihydrofolate reductase (Pf-DHFR) from blood samples from P. falciparum infected individuals in order to de...

    Authors: Michael Alifrangis, Inge T Christensen, Flemming S Jørgensen, Anita M Rønn, Jimmy E Weng, Ming Chen, Ib C Bygbjerg, Worachart Sirawaraporn, Yaseelan Palarasah and Claus Koch

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:16

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  20. Content type: Research

    Introducing sustainability and self-reliance is essential in chronic humanitarian emergencies before financial assistance is phased out. In Pakistan-based Afghan refugee camps, this was attempted through shift...

    Authors: Jan H Kolaczinski, Nasir Muhammad, Qaiser S Khan, Zahoor Jan, Naveeda Rehman, Toby J Leslie and Mark Rowland

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:15

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  21. Content type: Case report

    Malarone® (atovaquone-proguanil) is an effective drug for the treatment and prophylaxis of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria. However, first cases of resistance have been reported, which are associated with ...

    Authors: Ole Wichmann, Marion Muehlen, Holger Gruss, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Norbert Suttorp and Tomas Jelinek

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:14

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  22. Content type: Research

    The erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175) on Plasmodium falciparum merozoites mediates sialic acid dependent binding to glycophorin A on host erythrocytes and, therefore, plays a crucial role in cell invasion...

    Authors: Jakob P Cramer, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Ingo Möhl, Sabine Dittrich, Ekkehardt Dietz, Rowland N Otchwemah, Stephan Ehrhardt, Ulrich Bienzle and Tomas Jelinek

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:11

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  23. Content type: Methodology

    Surveillance for drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum should be a component of malaria control programmes. Real-time PCR methods for the detection of parasite single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene ampli...

    Authors: Anne Purfield, Amy Nelson, Anita Laoboonchai, Kanungnij Congpuong, Phillip McDaniel, R Scott Miller, Kathy Welch, Chansuda Wongsrichanalai and Steven R Meshnick

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:9

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  24. Content type: Methodology

    The success of PCR technique depends on many factors, such as high quality DNA pellets obtained from blood samples, good reagents and adequate conditions of amplification. Taking these limitations into account...

    Authors: Kézia KG Scopel, Cor JF Fontes, Álvaro C Nunes, Maria de Fátima Horta and Érika M Braga

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:8

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  25. Content type: Methodology

    Isolation of a concentrated, living preparation of malarial parasite-infected red blood cells (PRBCs) that have low contamination of white blood cells (WBCs) facilitates research on the molecular, biochemical ...

    Authors: Dai Thi Xuan Trang, Nguyen Tien Huy, Tohru Kariu, Kunihiko Tajima and Kaeko Kamei

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:7

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  26. Content type: Research

    Plasmodium vivax is the second most common species among malaria patients diagnosed in Europe, but epidemiological and clinical data on imported P. vivax malaria are limited. The TropNetEurop surveillance network...

    Authors: N Mühlberger, T Jelinek, J Gascon, M Probst, T Zoller, M Schunk, J Beran, I Gjørup, RH Behrens, J Clerinx, A Björkman, P McWhinney, A Matteelli, R Lopez-Velez, Z Bisoffi, U Hellgren…

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:5

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  27. Content type: Research

    A major concern in malaria vaccine development is the polymorphism observed among different Plasmodium isolates in different geographical areas across the globe. The merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) is a leadi...

    Authors: Amanda Maestre, Sujatha Sunil, Gul Ahmad, Asif Mohmmed, Marcela Echeverri, Mauricio Corredor, Silvia Blair, Virander S Chauhan and Pawan Malhotra

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:4

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  28. Content type: Research

    In Mozambique, malaria is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality. Efforts are being made to increase control activities within communities. These activities require management decisions based on eviden...

    Authors: Baltazar Chilundo, Johanne Sundby and Margunn Aanestad

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:3

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  29. Content type: Research

    Removal of exhaled air from total body emanations or artificially standardising carbon dioxide (CO2) outputs has previously been shown to eliminate differential attractiveness of humans to certain blackfly (Simul...

    Authors: Wolfgang R Mukabana, Willem Takken, Gerry F Killeen and Bart GJ Knols

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:1

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  30. Content type: Methodology

    The development of Plasmodium falciparum within human erythrocytes induces a wide array of changes in the ultrastructure, function and antigenic properties of the host cell. Numerous proteins encoded by the paras...

    Authors: Sonja B Lauterbach, Roberto Lanzillotti and Theresa L Coetzer

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:47

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  31. Content type: Research

    The selection of point mutation at codon 164 (from isoleucine to leucine) of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with high sulfadoxine /pyrimethamine (SP) resistance. ...

    Authors: Edwin Ochong, Alexis Nzila, Serah Kimani, Gilbert Kokwaro, Theonest Mutabingwa, William Watkins and Kevin Marsh

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:46

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  32. Content type: Research

    In many parts of continental Africa house construction does not appear to impede entry of malaria vectors and, given their generally late biting cycle, the great majority of transmission takes place indoors. I...

    Authors: J Derek Charlwood, Joao Pinto, Patrica R Ferrara, Carla A Sousa, Conceicao Ferreira, Vilfrido Gil and Virgillo E do Rosário

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:45

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  33. Content type: Methodology

    Remote sensing technology provides detailed spectral and thermal images of the earth's surface from which surrogate ecological indicators of complex processes can be measured.

    Authors: Thomas P Eisele, Joseph Keating, Chris Swalm, Charles M Mbogo, Andrew K Githeko, James L Regens, John I Githure, Linda Andrews and John C Beier

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:44

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  34. Content type: Research

    This study investigated causes of malaria and how cases were managed at household level, in order to improve the ability to identify malaria and ensure correct use of chloroquine. It was conducted in Nakonde D...

    Authors: Frederick AD Kaona and Mary Tuba

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:43

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  35. Content type: Research

    One method of collecting mosquitoes is to use human beings as bait. This is called human landing collection and is a reference method for evaluating mosquito density per person. The Mbita trap, described by Ma...

    Authors: Rémi Laganier, Fara M Randimby, Voahirana Rajaonarivelo and Vincent Robert

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:42

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  36. Content type: Research

    As well as being inducible by haem, haemoxygenase -1 (HO-1) is also induced by interleukin-10 and an anti-inflammatory prostaglandin, 15d PGJ2, the carbon monoxide thus produced mediating the anti-inflammatory ef...

    Authors: Ian A Clark, Melissa M Awburn, Clive G Harper, N George Liomba and Malcolm E Molyneux

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:41

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  37. Content type: Methodology

    Serological tests to detect antibodies specific to Plasmodium vivax could be a valuable tool for epidemiological studies, for screening blood donors in areas where the malaria is not endemic and for diagnosis of ...

    Authors: Maria Helena C Rodrigues, Maristela G Cunha, Ricardo LD Machado, Orlando C Ferreira Jr, Mauricio M Rodrigues and Irene S Soares

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:39

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  38. Content type: Research

    The intraerythrocytic development of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite involves asexual and gametocyte stages. There has been a significant increase in disparate datasets derived fro...

    Authors: Raphael D Isokpehi and Winston A Hide

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:38

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  39. Content type: Research

    In areas of high-level, year-round malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality due to malaria decrease after the first two to three years of life. This reduction may be related to the development of cellular...

    Authors: Kiprotich Chelimo, Peter O Sumba, James W Kazura, Ayub V Ofula and Chandy C John

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2003 2:37

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