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  1. Malaria afflicts 300–500 million people causing over 1 million deaths globally per year. The immunopathogenesis of malaria is mediated partly by co mplex cellular and immunomodulator interactions involving co-...

    Authors: Bismark Y Sarfo, Henry B Armah, Ikovwaiza Irune, Andrew A Adjei, Christine S Olver, Shailesh Singh, James W Lillard Jr and Jonathan K Stiles

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:63

    Content type: Research

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  2. In order to optimally prioritize and use public and private budgets for equitable malaria vector control, there is a need to determine the level and determinants of consumer demand for different vector control...

    Authors: Obinna Onwujekwe, El-Fatih Mohamed Malik, Sara Hassan Mustafa and Abraham Mnzava

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:62

    Content type: Research

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  3. Mutations in the haemoglobin beta-globin (HbB) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) genes cause widespread human genetic disorders such as sickle cell diseases and G6PD deficiency. In sub-Saharan Africa, ...

    Authors: Anders Enevold, Lasse S Vestergaard, John Lusingu, Chris J Drakeley, Martha M Lemnge, Thor G Theander, Ib C Bygbjerg and Michael Alifrangis

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:61

    Content type: Methodology

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  4. Alternative means of malaria control are urgently needed. Evaluating the effectiveness of measures that involve genetic manipulation of vector populations will be facilitated by identifying small, genetically ...

    Authors: Jonathan K Kayondo, Louis G Mukwaya, Aram Stump, Andrew P Michel, Mamadou B Coulibaly, Nora J Besansky and Frank H Collins

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:59

    Content type: Research

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  5. In Vietnam, a large proportion of all malaria cases and deaths occurs in the central mountainous and forested part of the country. Indeed, forest malaria, despite intensive control activities, is still a major...

    Authors: Annette Erhart, Ngo Duc Thang, Phan Van Ky, Ta Thi Tinh, Chantal Van Overmeir, Niko Speybroeck, Valerie Obsomer, Le Xuan Hung, Le Khanh Thuan, Marc Coosemans and Umberto D'alessandro

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:58

    Content type: Research

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  6. Abnormal motor posturing is often observed in children with cerebral malaria, but the aetiology and pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study examined the risk factors and outcome of posturing in Kenyan ch...

    Authors: Richard Idro, Godfrey Otieno, Steven White, Anderson Kahindi, Greg Fegan, Bernhards Ogutu, Sadik Mithwani, Kathryn Maitland, Brian GR Neville and Charles RJC Newton

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:57

    Content type: Research

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  7. Severe anaemia can develop in the aftermath of Plasmodium falciparum malaria because of protracted bone marrow suppression, possibly due to residual subpatent parasites.

    Authors: Marie Helleberg, Bamenla Q Goka, Bartholomew D Akanmori, George Obeng-Adjei, Onike Rodriques and Jorgen AL Kurtzhals

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:56

    Content type: Research

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  8. Systematic surveillance for resistant malaria shows high level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) across eastern and southern parts of Africa. This study assessed in vivo SP ...

    Authors: Kefas Mugittu, Salim Abdulla, Nicole Falk, Honorati Masanja, Ingrid Felger, Hassan Mshinda, Hans-Peter Beck and Blaise Genton

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:55

    Content type: Research

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  9. Acute malaria has been associated with a decreased antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, meningococcal, salmonella, and Hib vaccines. Interest in giving malaria drug therapy and prevention at th...

    Authors: Jennifer B Rosen, Joel G Breman, Charles R Manclark, Bruce D Meade, William E Collins, Hans O Lobel, Pierre Saliou, Jacquelin M Roberts, Pierre Campaoré and Mark A Miller

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:53

    Content type: Research

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  10. Insecticide-treated nets (ITN) are an important method of preventing malaria. To remain effective, they need to be re-treated with pyrethroid insecticide at approximately yearly intervals. Systems for re-treat...

    Authors: Alison Yates, Raphael N'Guessan, Harparkash Kaur, Martin Akogbéto and Mark Rowland

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:52

    Content type: Research

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  11. Research is an essential tool in facing the challenges of scaling up interventions and improving access to services. As in many other countries, the translation of research evidence into drug policy action in ...

    Authors: Godfrey M Mubyazi and Miguel A Gonzalez-Block

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:51

    Content type: Case study

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  12. Malaria is a serious, sometimes fatal, disease caused by Plasmodium infection of human red blood cells. The host-parasite co-evolutionary processes are well understood by the association of coding variations such...

    Authors: Sonali Gaikwad, Richa Ashma, Nirbhay Kumar, Rajni Trivedi and VK Kashyap

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:50

    Content type: Opinion

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  13. The success of sterile or transgenic Anopheles for malaria control depends on their mating competitiveness within wild populations. Current evidence suggests that transgenic mosquitoes have reduced fitness. One m...

    Authors: Kija R Ng'habi, Bernadette John, Gamba Nkwengulila, Bart GJ Knols, Gerry F Killeen and Heather M Ferguson

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:49

    Content type: Research

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  14. Several studies conducted in areas of medium or low malaria transmission intensity have found associations between malaria immunity and plasma antibody levels to glutamate rich protein (GLURP). This study was ...

    Authors: John PA Lusingu, Lasse S Vestergaard, Michael Alifrangis, Bruno P Mmbando, Michael Theisen, Andrew Y Kitua, Martha M Lemnge and Thor G Theander

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:48

    Content type: Research

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  15. Malaria, both with or without convulsions, is a serious hardship for people living in endemic areas, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Community references to malaria, however, may encompass other conditions, ...

    Authors: Collins K Ahorlu, Kwadwo A Koram, Cynthia Ahorlu, Don de Savigny and Mitchell G Weiss

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:47

    Content type: Research

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  16. The use of antimalarial drug combinations with artemisinin derivatives is recommended to overcome drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. The fixed combination of oral artemether-lumefantrine, an artemisinin co...

    Authors: Robert Hutagalung, Lucy Paiphun, Elizabeth A Ashley, Rose McGready, Alan Brockman, Kaw L Thwai, Pratap Singhasivanon, Thomas Jelinek, Nicholas J White and François H Nosten

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:46

    Content type: Research

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  17. Safe, effective and affordable drug combinations against falciparum malaria are urgently needed for the poor populations in malaria endemic countries. Methylene blue (MB) combined with chloroquine (CQ) has bee...

    Authors: Peter E Meissner, Germain Mandi, Steffen Witte, Boubacar Coulibaly, Ulrich Mansmann, Jens Rengelshausen, Wolfgang Schiek, Albrecht Jahn, Mamadou Sanon, Théophile Tapsoba, Ingeborg Walter-Sack, Gerd Mikus, Jürgen Burhenne, Klaus-Dieter Riedel, Heiner Schirmer, Bocar Kouyaté…

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:45

    Content type: Research

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  18. The use of transgenic mosquitoes with parasite inhibiting genes has been proposed as an integral strategy to control malaria transmission. However, release of exotic transgenic mosquitoes will bring in novel a...

    Authors: David M Menge, Tom Guda, Daibin Zhong, Aditi Pai, Goufa Zhou, John C Beier, Louis Gouagna and Guiyun Yan

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:44

    Content type: Research

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  19. Rapid urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa has a major impact on malaria epidemiology. While much is known about malaria in rural areas in Burkina Faso, the urban situation is less well understood.

    Authors: Shr-Jie Wang, Christian Lengeler, Thomas A Smith, Penelope Vounatsou, Diallo A Diadie, Xavier Pritroipa, Natalie Convelbo, Mathieu Kientga and Marcel Tanner

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:43

    Content type: Research

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  20. Both chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) are failing drugs in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Previous findings suggest an association between resistance to CQ and to SP in vivo, in vitro, and on the ...

    Authors: Frank P Mockenhaupt, J Teun Bousema, Teunis A Eggelte, Stephan Ehrhardt, Rowland N Otchwemah, Robert W Sauerwein and Ulrich Bienzle

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:42

    Content type: Research

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  21. Early diagnosis and effective treatment with an appropriate drug form the main components of the World Health Organization's strategy to reduce malaria related mortality. The few available drugs might be safeg...

    Authors: Sakina B Elamin, Elfatih M Malik, Tarig Abdelgadir, Ammar H Khamiss, Mamoun M Mohammed, Elderderi S Ahmed and Ishag Adam

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:41

    Content type: Research

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  22. The rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA) methodology aims to provide a cost-effective tool to conduct rapid assessments of the malaria situation in urban sub-Saharan Africa and to improve the understanding of ...

    Authors: Shr-Jie Wang, Christian Lengeler, Thomas A Smith, Penelope Vounatsou, Guéladio Cissé, Diadie A Diallo, Martin Akogbeto, Deo Mtasiwa, Awash Teklehaimanot and Marcel Tanner

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:40

    Content type: Methodology

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  23. Although maternal anaemia often stems from malaria infection during pregnancy, its effects on foetal haemoglobin levels are not straightforward. Lower-than-expected cord haemoglobin values in malarious versus ...

    Authors: Elizabeth T Abrams, Jesse J Kwiek, Victor Mwapasa, Deborah D Kamwendo, Eyob Tadesse, Valentino M Lema, Malcolm E Molyneux, Stephen J Rogerson and Steven R Meshnick

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:39

    Content type: Research

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  24. IL-1β and IL-1RA levels are higher in the serum of cerebral malaria patients than in patients with mild malaria. Recently, the level of IL1B expression was reported to be influenced by a polymorphism in the promo...

    Authors: Jun Ohashi, Izumi Naka, Akihiro Doi, Jintana Patarapotikul, Hathairad Hananantachai, Noppadon Tangpukdee, Sornchai Looareesuwan and Katsushi Tokunaga

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:38

    Content type: Research

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  25. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) reduce malaria morbidity and mortality, but use is limited. A barrier to ITN use may be lack of knowledge regarding malaria transmission and prevention. This study is a controll...

    Authors: Michelle Rhee, Mahamadou Sissoko, Sharon Perry, Willi McFarland, Julie Parsonnet and Ogobara Doumbo

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:35

    Content type: Research

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  26. Malaria is the largest cause of health services attendance, hospital admissions and child deaths in Tanzania. At the Abuja Summit in April 2000 Tanzania committed itself to protect 60% of its population at hig...

    Authors: Stephen M Magesa, Christian Lengeler, Don deSavigny, Jane E Miller, Ritha JA Njau, Karen Kramer, Andrew Kitua and Alex Mwita

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:34

    Content type: Case study

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  27. Pools of salt water and puddles created by giant waves from the sea due to the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004 would facilitate increased breeding of brackish water malaria vector, Anopheles sundaicus

    Authors: Kaliannagoun Krishnamoorthy, Purushothaman Jambulingam, R Natarajan, AN Shriram, Pradeep K Das and SC Sehgal

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:32

    Content type: Research

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  28. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) is a key intervention in the national strategy for malaria control in Tanzania. SP, the current drug of choice, is recommended to be adminis...

    Authors: Godfrey Mubyazi, Paul Bloch, Mathias Kamugisha, Andrew Kitua and Jasper Ijumba

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:31

    Content type: Research

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  29. The coverage of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) remains low despite existing distribution strategies, hence, it was important to assess consumers' preferences for distribution of ITNs, as well as their percept...

    Authors: Obinna Onwujekwe, Benjamin Uzochukwu, Nkoli Ezumah and Elvis Shu

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:29

    Content type: Research

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  30. Malaria has always been a major public health problem in Yemen. Several studies in developing countries have demonstrated ineffective and poor quality drugs including antimalarials. Therefore, quality assessme...

    Authors: Ahmed Abdo-Rabbo, Amal Bassili and Hoda Atta

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:28

    Content type: Research

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  31. There is a low incidence of malaria in Iquitos, Peru, suburbs detected by passive case-detection. This low incidence might be attributable to infections clustered in some households/regions and/or undetected a...

    Authors: OraLee Branch, W Martin Casapia, Dionicia V Gamboa, Jean N Hernandez, Freddy F Alava, Norma Roncal, Eugenia Alvarez, Enrique J Perez and Eduardo Gotuzzo

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:27

    Content type: Research

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  32. Plasmodium falciparum outbreaks can occur in the coastal area of French Guiana, where the population is essentially non-immune. Two sporadic outbreaks were observed, including one with severe malaria cases. To ch...

    Authors: Eric Legrand, Beatrice Volney, Anne Lavergne, Caroline Tournegros, Loïc Florent, Doris Accrombessi, Micheline Guillotte, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon and Philippe Esterre

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:26

    Content type: Research

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  33. Pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes are becoming increasingly common in parts of Africa. It is important to identify alternative insecticides which, if necessary, could be used to replace or supplement the pyrethr...

    Authors: Alex N Asidi, Raphael N' Guessan, Alphonsine A Koffi, Christopher F Curtis, Jean-Marc Hougard, Fabrice Chandre, Vincent Corbel, Frédéric Darriet, Morteza Zaim and Mark W Rowland

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:25

    Content type: Research

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  34. Mosquitoes commute between blood-meal hosts and water. Thus, heterogeneity in human biting reflects underlying spatial heterogeneity in the distribution and suitability of larval habitat as well as inherent di...

    Authors: Arnaud Le Menach, F Ellis McKenzie, Antoine Flahault and David L Smith

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:23

    Content type: Research

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  35. Parasites causing severe malaria in non-immune patients express a restricted subset of variant surface antigens (VSA), which are better recognized by immune sera than VSA expressed during non-severe disease in...

    Authors: Thomas Lavstsen, Pamela Magistrado, Cornelus C Hermsen, Ali Salanti, Anja TR Jensen, Robert Sauerwein, Lars Hviid, Thor G Theander and Trine Staalsoe

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:21

    Content type: Research

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  36. Plasmodium vivax is the second most prevalent malaria parasite affecting more than 75 million people each year, mostly in South America and Asia. In addition to major morbidity this parasite is associated with re...

    Authors: Mallika Imwong, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Anne Charlotte Grüner, Laurent Rénia, Frank Letourneur, Sornchai Looareesuwan, Nicholas J White and Georges Snounou

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:20

    Content type: Methodology

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  37. A single base pair mutation in the sodium channel confers knock-down resistance to pyrethroids in many insect species. Its occurrence in Anopheles mosquitoes may have important implications for malaria vector con...

    Authors: Amy Lynd, Hilary Ranson, P J McCall, Nadine P Randle, William C Black IV, Edward D Walker and Martin J Donnelly

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:16

    Content type: Methodology

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  38. The treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan has been in process of change since 2003. Preceding the change, this study aimed to determine which artemisinin-based combination therapies is more effecti...

    Authors: Ingrid van den Broek, Ribka Amsalu, Manica Balasegaram, Pamela Hepple, Engudaye Alemu, El Badri Hussein, Muhammed Al-Faith, Jacqui Montgomery and Francesco Checchi

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:14

    Content type: Research

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