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  1. A single base pair mutation in the sodium channel confers knock-down resistance to pyrethroids in many insect species. Its occurrence in Anopheles mosquitoes may have important implications for malaria vector con...

    Authors: Amy Lynd, Hilary Ranson, P J McCall, Nadine P Randle, William C Black IV, Edward D Walker and Martin J Donnelly
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:16
  2. The treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan has been in process of change since 2003. Preceding the change, this study aimed to determine which artemisinin-based combination therapies is more effecti...

    Authors: Ingrid van den Broek, Ribka Amsalu, Manica Balasegaram, Pamela Hepple, Engudaye Alemu, El Badri Hussein, Muhammed Al-Faith, Jacqui Montgomery and Francesco Checchi
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:14
  3. There are already 40 cities in Africa with over 1 million inhabitants and the United Nations Environmental Programme estimates that by 2025 over 800 million people will live in urban areas. Recognizing that ma...

    Authors: Martin J Donnelly, PJ McCall, Christian Lengeler, Imelda Bates, Umberto D'Alessandro, Guy Barnish, Flemming Konradsen, Eveline Klinkenberg, Harold Townson, Jean-Francois Trape, Ian M Hastings and Clifford Mutero
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:12
  4. Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi can be considered as a rodent model of human malaria parasites in the genetic analysis of important characters such as drug resistance and immunity. Despite the availability of some g...

    Authors: Axel Martinelli, Paul Hunt, Richard Fawcett, Pedro VL Cravo, David Walliker and Richard Carter
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:11
  5. Malaria takes a heavy toll in Niger, one of the world's poorest countries. Previous evaluations conducted in the context of the strategy for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, showed that 84% of s...

    Authors: Françoise Gay-Andrieu, Eric Adehossi, Véronique Lacroix, Moussa Gagara, Maman Laminou Ibrahim, Hama Kourna and Hamadou Boureima
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:10
  6. Three cases of nosocomial malaria are reported from patients of the Internal Medicine Ward of a tertiary University teaching hospital in Medellin, Colombia. Epidemiological research, based on entomological cap...

    Authors: Lina González, Jesus Ochoa, Liliana Franco, Marta Arroyave, Eliana Restrepo, Silvia Blair and Amanda Maestre
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:9
  7. Following the tsunami, a detailed overview of the area specific transmission levels is essential in assessing the risk of malaria in Sri Lanka. Recent information on vector insecticide resistance, parasite dru...

    Authors: Olivier JT Briët, Gawrie NL Galappaththy, Flemming Konradsen, Priyanie H Amerasinghe and Felix P Amerasinghe
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:8
  8. Mosquitoes sampling is an important component in malaria control. However, most of the methods used have several shortcomings and hence there is a need to develop and calibrate new methods. The Mbita trap for ...

    Authors: Evan M Mathenge, Gedion O Misiani, David O Oulo, Lucy W Irungu, Paul N Ndegwa, Tom A Smith, Gerry F Killeen and Bart GJ Knols
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:7
  9. Periodic epidemics of malaria are a major public health problem for many sub-Saharan African countries. Populations in epidemic prone areas have a poorly developed immunity to malaria and the disease remains l...

    Authors: Emily Grover-Kopec, Mika Kawano, Robert W Klaver, Benno Blumenthal, Pietro Ceccato and Stephen J Connor
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:6
  10. Polyclonal B-cell activation is well known to occur in Plasmodium infections, but its role in pathogenesis or protection remains unclear. However, protective properties of natural antibodies have previously been ...

    Authors: Constantin Fesel, Luis F Goulart, Adolfo Silva Neto, Alysson Coelho, Cor Jesus F Fontes, Erika M Braga and Nelson M Vaz
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:5
  11. By 2030, more than 50% of the African population will live in urban areas. Controlling malaria reduces the disease burden and further improves economic development. As a complement to treated nets and prompt a...

    Authors: Michael A Sattler, Deo Mtasiwa, Michael Kiama, Zul Premji, Marcel Tanner, Gerry F Killeen and Christian Lengeler
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:4
  12. Most studies on the resistance of mosquitoes to their malaria parasites focus on the response of a mosquito line or colony against a single parasite genotype. In natural situations, however, it may be expected...

    Authors: Louis Lambrechts, Jean Halbert, Patrick Durand, Louis C Gouagna and Jacob C Koella
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:3
  13. Malaria continues to claim one to two million lives a year, mainly those of children in sub-Saharan Africa. Reduction in mortality depends, in part, on improving the quality of hospital care, the training of h...

    Authors: Arnaud Dzeing-Ella, Pascal C Nze Obiang, Rose Tchoua, Timothy Planche, Béatrice Mboza, Monique Mbounja, Ulrich Muller-Roemer, Joseph Jarvis, Eric Kendjo, Edouard Ngou-Milama, Peter G Kremsner, Sanjeev Krishna and Maryvonne Kombila
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2005 4:1
  14. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is an important and frequently used tool within malaria research, however, this method remains problematic. High A/T versus C/G content and frequent lysi...

    Authors: Kirsten Flick, Sanjay Ahuja, Arnaud Chene, Maria Teresa Bejarano and Qijun Chen
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:50
  15. Sphingolipids are key molecules regulating many essential functions in eukaryotic cells and ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. A sphingolipid metabolism occurs in the intraerythrocytic s...

    Authors: Mehdi Labaied, Arie Dagan, Marc Dellinger, Marc Gèze, Stéphane Egée, Serge L Thomas, Chunbo Wang, Shimon Gatt and Philippe Grellier
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:49
  16. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are an integral component of malaria control programmes in Africa. How much pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors will impact on the efficacy of ITNs is controversial. The pu...

    Authors: Josiane Etang, Fabrice Chandre, Pierre Guillet and Lucien Manga
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:46
  17. The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is being considered as a biocontrol agent for adult African malaria vectors. In the laboratory, work was carried out to assess whether horizontal transmission of...

    Authors: Ernst-Jan Scholte, Bart GJ Knols and Willem Takken
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:45
  18. Timely and accurate information about the onset of malaria epidemics is essential for effective control activities in epidemic-prone regions. Early warning methods that provide earlier alerts (usually by the u...

    Authors: Hailay D Teklehaimanot, Joel Schwartz, Awash Teklehaimanot and Marc Lipsitch
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:44
  19. Helminthic infections concomitant with malaria are common in inter-tropical areas. A recent study showed that mice co-infected with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium chabaudi develop higher P. chabaudi parasitae...

    Authors: Cheikh Sokhna, Jean-Yves Le Hesran, Pape A Mbaye, Jean Akiana, Pape Camara, Mamadou Diop, Abdoulaye Ly and Pierre Druilhe
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:43
  20. To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Tanzania has recently adopted a policy of intermittent presumptive treatment for pregnant women using sulphadoxine-pyrimetham...

    Authors: Rhoida Y Nganda, Chris Drakeley, Hugh Reyburn and Tanya Marchant
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:42
  21. Malaria epidemics due to Plasmodium falciparum are reported frequently in the East African highlands with high case fatality rates. There have been formal attempts to predict epidemics by the use of climatic vari...

    Authors: Hailay D Teklehaimanot, Marc Lipsitch, Awash Teklehaimanot and Joel Schwartz
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:41
  22. Plasmodium vivax, although causing a less serious disease than Plasmodium falciparum, is the most widespread of the four human malarial species. Further to the recent recrudescence of P. vivax cases in the Newly ...

    Authors: Marie Claude Leclerc, Michela Menegon, Alexandra Cligny, Jean Louis Noyer, Suleyman Mammadov, Namig Aliyev, Elkhan Gasimov, Giancarlo Majori and Carlo Severini
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:40
  23. Malaria is a major public health problem for countries in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). While the endemicity of malaria varies enormously across this region, many of the countries have dist...

    Authors: Joaquim DaSilva, Brad Garanganga, Vonai Teveredzi, Sabine M Marx, Simon J Mason and Stephen J Connor
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:37
  24. Public health strategies are needed to curb antimalarial drug resistance. Theoretical argument points to an association between malaria transmission and drug resistance although field evidence remains limited....

    Authors: Sungano Mharakurwa, Susan L Mutambu, Robert Mudyiradima, Tawanda Chimbadzwa, Steven K Chandiwana and Karen P Day
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:35
  25. It was unknown whether the main reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, which infects mosquitoes in Thailand, was (a) in people feeling sufficiently ill with malaria to come to a clinic or (b) in...

    Authors: Aree Pethleart, Somsak Prajakwong, Wannapa Suwonkerd, Boontawee Corthong, Roger Webber and Christopher Curtis
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:34
  26. Climate is a major driving force behind malaria transmission and climate data are often used to account for the spatial, seasonal and interannual variation in malaria transmission.

    Authors: Moshe B Hoshen and Andrew P Morse
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:32
  27. The ability of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to adhere to the microvasculature endothelium is thought to play a causal role in malaria pathogenesis. Cytoadhesion to endothelial receptors is generall...

    Authors: Lisa Sharling, Anders Enevold, Kordai MP Sowa, Trine Staalsoe and David E Arnot
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:31
  28. Both host and pathogen factors contribute to disease outcome in Plasmodium falciparum infection. The feasibility of studying the P. falciparum in vivo transcriptome to understand parasite transcriptional response...

    Authors: Johanna P Daily, Karine G Le Roch, Ousmane Sarr, Xuemin Fang, Yingyao Zhou, Omar Ndir, Soulyemane Mboup, Ali Sultan, Elizabeth A Winzeler and Dyann F Wirth
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:30
  29. Malaria is one of the oldest and deadliest infectious diseases in humans. Many mathematical models of malaria have been developed during the past century, and applied to potential interventions. However, malar...

    Authors: Jean-Marc O Depinay, Charles M Mbogo, Gerry Killeen, Bart Knols, John Beier, John Carlson, Jonathan Dushoff, Peter Billingsley, Henry Mwambi, John Githure, Abdoulaye M Toure and F Ellis McKenzie
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:29
  30. The circumsporozoite surface protein is the primary target of human antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, these antibodies are predominantly directed to the major repetitive epitope (Asn-Pro-Asn-A...

    Authors: Jonathan A Chappel, William O Rogers, Stephen L Hoffman and Angray S Kang
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:28
  31. Once malaria occurs, deaths can be prevented by prompt treatment with relatively affordable and efficacious drugs. Yet this goal is elusive in Africa. The paradox of a continuing but easily preventable cause o...

    Authors: Don de Savigny, Charles Mayombana, Eleuther Mwageni, Honorati Masanja, Abdulatif Minhaj, Yahya Mkilindi, Conrad Mbuya, Harun Kasale and Graham Reid
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:27
  32. The relationship between the burden of uncomplicated malaria and transmission intensity is unclear and a better understanding of this relationship is important for the implementation of intervention programmes.

    Authors: John PA Lusingu, Lasse S Vestergaard, Bruno P Mmbando, Chris J Drakeley, Caroline Jones, Juma Akida, Zacharia X Savaeli, Andrew Y Kitua, Martha M Lemnge and Thor G Theander
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:26
  33. A refugee shelter that is treated with insecticide during manufacture would be useful for malaria control at the acute stage of an emergency, when logistic problems, poor co-ordination and insecurity limit the...

    Authors: Kate Graham, Hameed Rehman, Mushtaq Ahmad, Mohammed Kamal, Irfanullah Khan and Mark Rowland
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:25
  34. The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum has a complex life cycle in which asexual multiplication in the vertebrate host alternates with an obligate sexual reproduction in the anopheline mosquito. Apart from the appar...

    Authors: Arthur M Talman, Olivier Domarle, F Ellis McKenzie, Frédéric Ariey and Vincent Robert
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:24
  35. The evolution and spread of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s, the major malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa, is of great concern owing to the importance of pyrethroid-treated nets in the WHO global...

    Authors: Vincent Corbel, Fabrice Chandre, Cécile Brengues, Martin Akogbéto, Frédéric Lardeux, Jean Marc Hougard and Pierre Guillet
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:22
  36. Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is caused by Plasmodium falciparum- infected erythrocytes that can sequester in placental intervillous space by expressing particular variant surface antigens (VSA) that can med...

    Authors: Ayman Khattab, Christina Reinhardt, Trine Staalsoe, Nadine Fievet, Peter G Kremsner, Philippe Deloron, Lars Hviid and Mo-Quen Klinkert
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:21
  37. A study was carried out in a village of the mainland region of Equatorial Guinea in order to ascertain a) which members of Anopheles gambiae complex could be involved in malaria transmission and b) the rate of in...

    Authors: Marta Moreno, Jorge Cano, Sisinio Nzambo, Leonardo Bobuakasi, Jesús N Buatiche, Melchor Ondo, Francisco Micha and Agustín Benito
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:20
  38. Insecticide-treated nets represent currently a key malaria control strategy, but low insecticide re-treatment rates remain problematic. Olyset™ nets are currently one of two long-lasting insecticidal nets reco...

    Authors: Adriana Tami, Godfrey Mubyazi, Alison Talbert, Hassan Mshinda, Stéphane Duchon and Christian Lengeler
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:19
  39. Studies on Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte development and dynamics have almost exclusively focused on patients treated with antimalarial drugs, while the majority of parasite carriers in endemic areas are asymp...

    Authors: J Teun Bousema, Louis C Gouagna, Chris J Drakeley, Annemiek M Meutstege, Bernard A Okech, Ikupa NJ Akim, John C Beier, John I Githure and Robert W Sauerwein
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:18
  40. Plasmodium falciparum morbid and fatal risks are considerably higher in areas supporting parasite prevalence ≥25%, when compared with low transmission areas supporting parasite prevalence below 25%. Recent descri...

    Authors: Judith A Omumbo, Simon I Hay, Carlos A Guerra and Robert W Snow
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2004 3:17

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