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  1. Ethnographic studies from East Africa suggest that cerebral malaria and anaemia are not classified in local knowledge as malaria complications, but as illnesses in their own right. Cerebral malaria 'degedege' has...

    Authors: Frank M Ringsted, Ib C Bygbjerg and Helle Samuelsen

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:111

    Content type: Research

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  2. The organization and mining of malaria genomic and post-genomic data is important to significantly increase the knowledge of the biology of its causative agents, and is motivated, on a longer term, by the nece...

    Authors: Lyn-Marie Birkholtz, Olivier Bastien, Gordon Wells, Delphine Grando, Fourie Joubert, Vinod Kasam, Marc Zimmermann, Philippe Ortet, Nicolas Jacq, Nadia Saïdani, Sylvaine Roy, Martin Hofmann-Apitius, Vincent Breton, Abraham I Louw and Eric Maréchal

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:110

    Content type: Review

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  3. Malaria control strategies emphasize the need for prompt and effective treatment of malaria episodes. To increase treatment efficacy, Tanzania changed its first-line treatment from chloroquine to sulphadoxine-...

    Authors: Manuel W Hetzel, June J Msechu, Catherine Goodman, Christian Lengeler, Brigit Obrist, S Patrick Kachur, Ahmed Makemba, Rose Nathan, Alexander Schulze and Hassan Mshinda

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:109

    Content type: Research

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  4. Chloroquine (CQ) or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) monotherapy for Plasmodium falciparum often leads to therapeutic failure in Indonesia. Combining CQ with other drugs, like SP, may provide an affordable, availab...

    Authors: Edith R Lederman, Jason D Maguire, Iwa W Sumawinata, Krisin Chand, Iqbal Elyazar, Lusi Estiana, Priyanto Sismadi, Michael J Bangs and J Kevin Baird

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:108

    Content type: Research

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  5. Recent resurgence of malaria in the highlands of Western Kenya has called for a more comprehensive understanding of the previously neglected complex highland vector ecology. Besides other drivers of malaria ep...

    Authors: Andrew K Githeko, John M Ayisi, Peter K Odada, Francis K Atieli, Bryson A Ndenga, John I Githure and Guiyun Yan

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:107

    Content type: Research

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  6. Antananarivo, the capital of Madagascar, is located at an altitude of over 1,200 m. The environment at this altitude is not particularly favourable to malaria transmission, but malaria nonetheless remains a ma...

    Authors: Olivier Domarle, Romy Razakandrainibe, Emma Rakotomalala, Laurence Jolivet, Rindra Vatosoa Randremanana, Fanjasoa Rakotomanana, Charles Emile Ramarokoto, Jean-Louis Soares and Frédéric Ariey

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:106

    Content type: Research

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  7. A survey in Kumasi, Ghana found a marked Plasmodium falciparum prevalence difference between two neighbouring communities (Moshie Zongo and Manhyia). The primary objective of this follow-up study was to determine...

    Authors: Lisa A Ronald, Sarah L Kenny, Eveline Klinkenberg, Alex O Akoto, Isaac Boakye, Guy Barnish and Martin J Donnelly

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:105

    Content type: Research

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  8. Thick blood films are routinely used to diagnose Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, they were used to diagnose volunteers exposed to experimental malaria challenge.

    Authors: Philip Bejon, Laura Andrews, Angela Hunt-Cooke, Frances Sanderson, Sarah C Gilbert and Adrian VS Hill

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:104

    Content type: Research

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  9. Current detection or screening for malaria infection necessitates drawing blood by fingerprick or venipuncture, which poses risks and limitations for repeated measurement. This study presents PCR detection of Pla...

    Authors: Sungano Mharakurwa, Christopher Simoloka, Philip E Thuma, Clive J Shiff and David J Sullivan

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:103

    Content type: Methodology

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  10. Hyperlactataemia is often associated with a poor outcome in severe malaria in African children. To unravel the complex pathophysiology of this condition the relationship between plasma lactate levels, parasite...

    Authors: Climent Casals-Pascual, Oscar Kai, Brett Lowe, Mike English, Thomas N Williams, Kathryn Maitland, Charles RCJ Newton, Norbert Peshu and David J Roberts

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:101

    Content type: Research

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  11. Surprisingly little is known about the geographical overlap between malaria and other tropical diseases, including helminth infections. This is despite the potential public health importance of co-infection an...

    Authors: Simon Brooker, Archie CA Clements, Peter J Hotez, Simon I Hay, Andrew J Tatem, Donald AP Bundy and Robert W Snow

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:99

    Content type: Research

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  12. Spatial and longitudinal monitoring of transmission intensity will allow better targeting of malaria interventions. In this study, data on meteorological, demographic, entomological and parasitological data ov...

    Authors: MJAM Oesterholt, JT Bousema, OK Mwerinde, C Harris, P Lushino, A Masokoto, H Mwerinde, FW Mosha and CJ Drakeley

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:98

    Content type: Research

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  13. Malaria is one of the most serious health problems in Kenya. In 2004, the Kenya Medical Research Institute and the US Army Medical Research Unit – Kenya surveyed adults in Samburu, Malindi, and Busia districts...

    Authors: Rodney L Coldren, Trish Prosser, Fredrick Ogolla, Victor O Ofula and Nicholas Adungo

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:96

    Content type: Research

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  14. The standard in vitro protocol currently in use for drug testing against Plasmodium falciparum, based on the incorporation of the purine [3H]-hypoxanthine, has two serious drawbacks. Firstly it is unsuitable for ...

    Authors: Neils B Quashie, Harry P de Koning and Lisa C Ranford-Cartwright

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:95

    Content type: Methodology

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  15. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been and is currently used for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in many African countries. Nevertheless, the response of parasites to SP treatment has s...

    Authors: Erasto V Mbugi, Benezeth M Mutayoba, Allen L Malisa, Sakurani T Balthazary, Thomas B Nyambo and Hassan Mshinda

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:94

    Content type: Research

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  16. Malaria is a leading cause of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality among children in Africa, yet, few studies have described the spatial distribution of the two outcomes. Here spatial regression models we...

    Authors: Lawrence N Kazembe, Immo Kleinschmidt and Brian L Sharp

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:93

    Content type: Research

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  17. Sets of Giemsa-stained, blood smear slides with systematically verified composite diagnoses would contribute substantially to development of externally validated quality assurance systems for the microscopic d...

    Authors: Jason D Maguire, Edith R Lederman, Mazie J Barcus, Wendy A Prudhomme O'Meara, Robert G Jordon, Socheat Duong, Sinuon Muth, Priyanto Sismadi, Michael J Bangs, W Roy Prescott, J Kevin Baird and Chansuda Wongsrichanalai

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:92

    Content type: Methodology

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  18. For remote identification of mosquito habitats the first step is often to construct a discrete tessellation of the region. In applications where complex geometries do not need to be represented such as urban h...

    Authors: Benjamin G Jacob, Ephantus J Muturi, Jose E Funes, Josephat I Shililu, John I Githure, Ibulaimu I Kakoma and Robert J Novak

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:91

    Content type: Research

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  19. Genetic polymorphism is an inevitable component of a complex organism especially in multistage infectious organisms such as malaria parasites. Understanding the population genetic structure of the parasites wo...

    Authors: Surendra K Prajapati, Anju Verma, Tridibes Adak, Rajpal S Yadav, Ashwini Kumar, Alex Eapen, Manoj K Das, Neeru Singh, Surya K Sharma, Moshahid A Rizvi, Aditya P Dash and Hema Joshi

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:90

    Content type: Research

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  20. The impact of malaria on the risk of stillbirth is still under debate. The aim of the present analysis was to determine comparative changes in stillbirth prevalence between two areas of Tanzania with different...

    Authors: Ulrika Uddenfeldt Wort, Ian Hastings, TK Mutabingwa and Bernard J Brabin

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:89

    Content type: Research

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  21. Physical objects like vegetation can influence oviposition by mosquitoes on soil or water substrates. Anopheles gambiae s. l. is generally thought to utilize puddles over bare soil as its prime larval habitat and...

    Authors: Juan Huang, Edward D Walker, Philip E Otienoburu, Fred Amimo, John Vulule and James R Miller

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:88

    Content type: Research

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  22. Anopheles gambiae eggs are more frequently found on soil around puddle habitats of the larvae, than on the water surface itself in Western Kenya. Thus, eggs can experience temperatures more wide-ranging and letha...

    Authors: Juan Huang, Edward D Walker, John Vulule and James R Miller

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:87

    Content type: Research

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  23. The development of safe, effective and affordable drug combinations against malaria in Africa is a public health priority. Methylene blue (MB) has a similar mode of action as chloroquine (CQ) and has moreover ...

    Authors: Peter E Meissner, Germain Mandi, Boubacar Coulibaly, Steffen Witte, Théophile Tapsoba, Ulrich Mansmann, Jens Rengelshausen, Wolfgang Schiek, Albrecht Jahn, Ingeborg Walter-Sack, Gerd Mikus, Jürgen Burhenne, Klaus-Dieter Riedel, R Heiner Schirmer, Bocar Kouyaté and Olaf Müller

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:84

    Content type: Research

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  24. The naturally-acquired immune response to Plasmodium vivax variant antigens (VIR) was evaluated in individuals exposed to malaria and living in different endemic areas for malaria in the north of Brazil.

    Authors: Tatiane R Oliveira, Carmen Fernandez-Becerra, Maria Carolina S Jimenez, Hernando A Del Portillo and Irene S Soares

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:83

    Content type: Research

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  25. In vitro and in vivo resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to atovaquone or atovaquone-proguanil hydrochloride combination has been associated to two point mutations in the parasite cytochrome b (cytb) gene (Tyr268...

    Authors: Christian T Happi, Grace O Gbotosho, Onikepe A Folarin, Danny Milner, Ousmane Sarr, Akintunde Sowunmi, Dennis E Kyle, Wilbur K Milhous, Dyann F Wirth and Ayoade MJ Oduola

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:82

    Content type: Research

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  26. Artemisinin-containing therapies are highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Insufficient numbers of tablets and inadequate package inserts result in sub-optimal dosing and possible treatment fail...

    Authors: Yves Jackson, François Chappuis, Louis Loutan and Walter Taylor

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:81

    Content type: Research

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  27. Decisions concerning malaria treatment depend on species identification causing disease. Microscopy is most frequently used, but at low parasitaemia (<20 parasites/μl) the technique becomes less sensitive and ...

    Authors: Petra F Mens, Gerard J Schoone, Piet A Kager and Henk DFH Schallig

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:80

    Content type: Methodology

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  28. The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of home malaria management with pre-packaged chloroquine in two areas in the Moramanga district of Madagascar. The knowledge, attitude and practices o...

    Authors: Arsène Ratsimbasoa, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Pascal Millet, Jean Louis Soarès, Leon Rabarijaona, Benjamin Rakotoson, Denis Malvy and Didier Ménard

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:79

    Content type: Research

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  29. Malaria epidemics in highland areas of East Africa have caused considerable morbidity and mortality in the past two decades. Knowledge of "hotspot" areas of high malaria incidence would allow for focused preve...

    Authors: Kacey C Ernst, Samson O Adoka, Dickens O Kowuor, Mark L Wilson and Chandy C John

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:78

    Content type: Research

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  30. Recent field studies indicated that insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) maintain their efficacy despite a high frequency of the knock-down resistance (kdr) gene in Anopheles gambiae populations. It was essential t...

    Authors: Mouhamadou Chouaibou, Frédéric Simard, Fabrice Chandre, Josiane Etang, Frédéric Darriet and Jean-Marc Hougard

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:77

    Content type: Research

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  31. Malaria imposes significant costs on households and the poor are disproportionately affected. However, cost data are often from quantitative surveys with a fixed recall period. They do not capture costs that u...

    Authors: Jane M Chuma, Michael Thiede and Catherine S Molyneux

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:76

    Content type: Research

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  32. Sentinel site surveillance of antimalarials by in-vivo therapeutic efficacy studies in Zambia is one of the key activities ear-marked for monitoring and evaluation. The studies are conducted annually in order ...

    Authors: Pascalina Chanda, Moonga Hawela, Mabvuto Kango and Naawa Sipilanyambe

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:75

    Content type: Research

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  33. In Zambia, unacceptably high resistance to commonly used antimalarial drugs prompted the choice of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as first line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Although th...

    Authors: Modest Mulenga, Jean-Pierre Van geertruyden, Lawrence Mwananyanda, Victor Chalwe, Filip Moerman, Roma Chilengi, Chantal Van Overmeir, Jean-Claude Dujardin and Umberto D'Alessandro

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:73

    Content type: Research

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  34. Host susceptibility to P.falciparum is critical for understanding malaria in pregnancy, its consequences for the mother and baby, and for improving malaria control in pregnant women. Yet host genetic factors whic...

    Authors: María-Paz Loscertales and Bernard J Brabin

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:72

    Content type: Research

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  35. Plasmodium vivax malaria accounts for approximately 60% of malaria cases in Kolkata, India. There has been limited information on the genotypic polymorphism of P. vivax in this malaria endemic area. Three highly ...

    Authors: Jung-Ryong Kim, Mallika Imwong, Amitabha Nandy, Kesinee Chotivanich, Apichart Nontprasert, Naowarat Tonomsing, Ardhendu Maji, Manjulika Addy, Nick PJ Day, Nicholas J White and Sasithon Pukrittayakamee

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:71

    Content type: Research

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  36. Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are known to be highly effective in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality. The effectiveness of ITNs is largely influenced by behavioural factors and not much is known re...

    Authors: Claudia Frey, Corneille Traoré, Manuela De Allegri, Bocar Kouyaté and Olaf Müller

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:70

    Content type: Research

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  37. The population dynamics of Plasmodium sporogony within mosquitoes consists of an early phase where parasite abundance decreases during the transition from gametocyte to oocyst, an intermediate phase where parasit...

    Authors: Gabriela E Zollner, Narong Ponsa, Gabriel W Garman, Shreekanta Poudel, Jeffrey A Bell, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Russell E Coleman and Jefferson A Vaughan

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:68

    Content type: Research

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  38. The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum relates in part to the cytoadhesion characteristics of parasitized erythrocytes but the molecular basis of the different qualitative and quantitative binding phenotypes is i...

    Authors: Yang Wu and Alister Craig

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:67

    Content type: Methodology

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  39. Malaria has recently re-emerged as a public health burden in Colombia. Although the problem seems to be climate-driven, there remain significant gaps of knowledge in the understanding of the complexity of mala...

    Authors: Daniel Ruiz, Germán Poveda, Iván D Vélez, Martha L Quiñones, Guillermo L Rúa, Luz E Velásquez and Juan S Zuluaga

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:66

    Content type: Research

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  40. In Sudan, chloroquine (CQ) remains the most frequently used drug for falciparum malaria for more than 40 years. The change to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was initiated in 2004 using the co-blis...

    Authors: EM Malik, TA Mohamed, KA Elmardi, RM Mowien, AH Elhassan, SB Elamin, AA Mannan and ES Ahmed

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:65

    Content type: Case study

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  41. A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes refle...

    Authors: Samuel B Anyona, Stanley L Schrier, Charity W Gichuki and John N Waitumbi

    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:64

    Content type: Research

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