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  1. Hyperlactataemia is often associated with a poor outcome in severe malaria in African children. To unravel the complex pathophysiology of this condition the relationship between plasma lactate levels, parasite...

    Authors: Climent Casals-Pascual, Oscar Kai, Brett Lowe, Mike English, Thomas N Williams, Kathryn Maitland, Charles RCJ Newton, Norbert Peshu and David J Roberts
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:101
  2. Surprisingly little is known about the geographical overlap between malaria and other tropical diseases, including helminth infections. This is despite the potential public health importance of co-infection an...

    Authors: Simon Brooker, Archie CA Clements, Peter J Hotez, Simon I Hay, Andrew J Tatem, Donald AP Bundy and Robert W Snow
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:99
  3. Spatial and longitudinal monitoring of transmission intensity will allow better targeting of malaria interventions. In this study, data on meteorological, demographic, entomological and parasitological data ov...

    Authors: MJAM Oesterholt, JT Bousema, OK Mwerinde, C Harris, P Lushino, A Masokoto, H Mwerinde, FW Mosha and CJ Drakeley
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:98
  4. Malaria is one of the most serious health problems in Kenya. In 2004, the Kenya Medical Research Institute and the US Army Medical Research Unit – Kenya surveyed adults in Samburu, Malindi, and Busia districts...

    Authors: Rodney L Coldren, Trish Prosser, Fredrick Ogolla, Victor O Ofula and Nicholas Adungo
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:96
  5. The standard in vitro protocol currently in use for drug testing against Plasmodium falciparum, based on the incorporation of the purine [3H]-hypoxanthine, has two serious drawbacks. Firstly it is unsuitable for ...

    Authors: Neils B Quashie, Harry P de Koning and Lisa C Ranford-Cartwright
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:95
  6. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been and is currently used for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in many African countries. Nevertheless, the response of parasites to SP treatment has s...

    Authors: Erasto V Mbugi, Benezeth M Mutayoba, Allen L Malisa, Sakurani T Balthazary, Thomas B Nyambo and Hassan Mshinda
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:94
  7. Malaria is a leading cause of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality among children in Africa, yet, few studies have described the spatial distribution of the two outcomes. Here spatial regression models we...

    Authors: Lawrence N Kazembe, Immo Kleinschmidt and Brian L Sharp
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:93
  8. Sets of Giemsa-stained, blood smear slides with systematically verified composite diagnoses would contribute substantially to development of externally validated quality assurance systems for the microscopic d...

    Authors: Jason D Maguire, Edith R Lederman, Mazie J Barcus, Wendy A Prudhomme O'Meara, Robert G Jordon, Socheat Duong, Sinuon Muth, Priyanto Sismadi, Michael J Bangs, W Roy Prescott, J Kevin Baird and Chansuda Wongsrichanalai
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:92
  9. For remote identification of mosquito habitats the first step is often to construct a discrete tessellation of the region. In applications where complex geometries do not need to be represented such as urban h...

    Authors: Benjamin G Jacob, Ephantus J Muturi, Jose E Funes, Josephat I Shililu, John I Githure, Ibulaimu I Kakoma and Robert J Novak
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:91
  10. Genetic polymorphism is an inevitable component of a complex organism especially in multistage infectious organisms such as malaria parasites. Understanding the population genetic structure of the parasites wo...

    Authors: Surendra K Prajapati, Anju Verma, Tridibes Adak, Rajpal S Yadav, Ashwini Kumar, Alex Eapen, Manoj K Das, Neeru Singh, Surya K Sharma, Moshahid A Rizvi, Aditya P Dash and Hema Joshi
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:90
  11. The impact of malaria on the risk of stillbirth is still under debate. The aim of the present analysis was to determine comparative changes in stillbirth prevalence between two areas of Tanzania with different...

    Authors: Ulrika Uddenfeldt Wort, Ian Hastings, TK Mutabingwa and Bernard J Brabin
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:89
  12. Physical objects like vegetation can influence oviposition by mosquitoes on soil or water substrates. Anopheles gambiae s. l. is generally thought to utilize puddles over bare soil as its prime larval habitat and...

    Authors: Juan Huang, Edward D Walker, Philip E Otienoburu, Fred Amimo, John Vulule and James R Miller
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:88
  13. Anopheles gambiae eggs are more frequently found on soil around puddle habitats of the larvae, than on the water surface itself in Western Kenya. Thus, eggs can experience temperatures more wide-ranging and letha...

    Authors: Juan Huang, Edward D Walker, John Vulule and James R Miller
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:87
  14. The development of safe, effective and affordable drug combinations against malaria in Africa is a public health priority. Methylene blue (MB) has a similar mode of action as chloroquine (CQ) and has moreover ...

    Authors: Peter E Meissner, Germain Mandi, Boubacar Coulibaly, Steffen Witte, Théophile Tapsoba, Ulrich Mansmann, Jens Rengelshausen, Wolfgang Schiek, Albrecht Jahn, Ingeborg Walter-Sack, Gerd Mikus, Jürgen Burhenne, Klaus-Dieter Riedel, R Heiner Schirmer, Bocar Kouyaté and Olaf Müller
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:84
  15. The naturally-acquired immune response to Plasmodium vivax variant antigens (VIR) was evaluated in individuals exposed to malaria and living in different endemic areas for malaria in the north of Brazil.

    Authors: Tatiane R Oliveira, Carmen Fernandez-Becerra, Maria Carolina S Jimenez, Hernando A Del Portillo and Irene S Soares
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:83
  16. In vitro and in vivo resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to atovaquone or atovaquone-proguanil hydrochloride combination has been associated to two point mutations in the parasite cytochrome b (cytb) gene (Tyr268...

    Authors: Christian T Happi, Grace O Gbotosho, Onikepe A Folarin, Danny Milner, Ousmane Sarr, Akintunde Sowunmi, Dennis E Kyle, Wilbur K Milhous, Dyann F Wirth and Ayoade MJ Oduola
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:82
  17. Artemisinin-containing therapies are highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Insufficient numbers of tablets and inadequate package inserts result in sub-optimal dosing and possible treatment fail...

    Authors: Yves Jackson, François Chappuis, Louis Loutan and Walter Taylor
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:81
  18. Decisions concerning malaria treatment depend on species identification causing disease. Microscopy is most frequently used, but at low parasitaemia (<20 parasites/μl) the technique becomes less sensitive and ...

    Authors: Petra F Mens, Gerard J Schoone, Piet A Kager and Henk DFH Schallig
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:80
  19. The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of home malaria management with pre-packaged chloroquine in two areas in the Moramanga district of Madagascar. The knowledge, attitude and practices o...

    Authors: Arsène Ratsimbasoa, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Pascal Millet, Jean Louis Soarès, Leon Rabarijaona, Benjamin Rakotoson, Denis Malvy and Didier Ménard
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:79
  20. Malaria epidemics in highland areas of East Africa have caused considerable morbidity and mortality in the past two decades. Knowledge of "hotspot" areas of high malaria incidence would allow for focused preve...

    Authors: Kacey C Ernst, Samson O Adoka, Dickens O Kowuor, Mark L Wilson and Chandy C John
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:78
  21. Recent field studies indicated that insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) maintain their efficacy despite a high frequency of the knock-down resistance (kdr) gene in Anopheles gambiae populations. It was essential t...

    Authors: Mouhamadou Chouaibou, Frédéric Simard, Fabrice Chandre, Josiane Etang, Frédéric Darriet and Jean-Marc Hougard
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:77
  22. Malaria imposes significant costs on households and the poor are disproportionately affected. However, cost data are often from quantitative surveys with a fixed recall period. They do not capture costs that u...

    Authors: Jane M Chuma, Michael Thiede and Catherine S Molyneux
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:76
  23. Sentinel site surveillance of antimalarials by in-vivo therapeutic efficacy studies in Zambia is one of the key activities ear-marked for monitoring and evaluation. The studies are conducted annually in order ...

    Authors: Pascalina Chanda, Moonga Hawela, Mabvuto Kango and Naawa Sipilanyambe
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:75
  24. In Zambia, unacceptably high resistance to commonly used antimalarial drugs prompted the choice of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as first line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Although th...

    Authors: Modest Mulenga, Jean-Pierre Van geertruyden, Lawrence Mwananyanda, Victor Chalwe, Filip Moerman, Roma Chilengi, Chantal Van Overmeir, Jean-Claude Dujardin and Umberto D'Alessandro
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:73
  25. Host susceptibility to P.falciparum is critical for understanding malaria in pregnancy, its consequences for the mother and baby, and for improving malaria control in pregnant women. Yet host genetic factors whic...

    Authors: María-Paz Loscertales and Bernard J Brabin
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:72
  26. Plasmodium vivax malaria accounts for approximately 60% of malaria cases in Kolkata, India. There has been limited information on the genotypic polymorphism of P. vivax in this malaria endemic area. Three highly ...

    Authors: Jung-Ryong Kim, Mallika Imwong, Amitabha Nandy, Kesinee Chotivanich, Apichart Nontprasert, Naowarat Tonomsing, Ardhendu Maji, Manjulika Addy, Nick PJ Day, Nicholas J White and Sasithon Pukrittayakamee
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:71
  27. Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are known to be highly effective in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality. The effectiveness of ITNs is largely influenced by behavioural factors and not much is known re...

    Authors: Claudia Frey, Corneille Traoré, Manuela De Allegri, Bocar Kouyaté and Olaf Müller
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:70
  28. The population dynamics of Plasmodium sporogony within mosquitoes consists of an early phase where parasite abundance decreases during the transition from gametocyte to oocyst, an intermediate phase where parasit...

    Authors: Gabriela E Zollner, Narong Ponsa, Gabriel W Garman, Shreekanta Poudel, Jeffrey A Bell, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Russell E Coleman and Jefferson A Vaughan
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:68
  29. The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum relates in part to the cytoadhesion characteristics of parasitized erythrocytes but the molecular basis of the different qualitative and quantitative binding phenotypes is i...

    Authors: Yang Wu and Alister Craig
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:67
  30. Malaria has recently re-emerged as a public health burden in Colombia. Although the problem seems to be climate-driven, there remain significant gaps of knowledge in the understanding of the complexity of mala...

    Authors: Daniel Ruiz, Germán Poveda, Iván D Vélez, Martha L Quiñones, Guillermo L Rúa, Luz E Velásquez and Juan S Zuluaga
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:66
  31. In Sudan, chloroquine (CQ) remains the most frequently used drug for falciparum malaria for more than 40 years. The change to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was initiated in 2004 using the co-blis...

    Authors: EM Malik, TA Mohamed, KA Elmardi, RM Mowien, AH Elhassan, SB Elamin, AA Mannan and ES Ahmed
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:65
  32. A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes refle...

    Authors: Samuel B Anyona, Stanley L Schrier, Charity W Gichuki and John N Waitumbi
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:64
  33. Malaria prevention programmes should be based in part on knowledge of why some individuals use bednets while others do not. This paper identifies factors and characteristics of women that affect bednet use amo...

    Authors: Natalie De La Cruz, Benjamin Crookston, Kirk Dearden, Bobbi Gray, Natasha Ivins, Stephen Alder and Robb Davis
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:61
  34. Effective management of malaria in children under the age of 5 requires mothers to seek, obtain, and use medication appropriately. This is linked to timely decision, accessibility, correct use of the drugs and...

    Authors: Elfatih Mohamed Malik, Kamal Hanafi, Salah Hussein Ali, Eldirdieri Salim Ahmed and Khalid Awad Mohamed
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:60
  35. A six-dose antimalarial regimen of artemether-lumefantrine (A/L) may soon become one of the most widely used drug combination in Africa, despite possible constraints with adherence and poor absorption due to i...

    Authors: Francesco Checchi, Patrice Piola, Carole Fogg, Francis Bajunirwe, Samuel Biraro, Francesco Grandesso, Eugene Ruzagira, Joseph Babigumira, Isaac Kigozi, James Kiguli, Juliet Kyomuhendo, Laurent Ferradini, Walter RJ Taylor and Jean-Paul Guthmann
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:59
  36. The current malaria control strategy of WHO centres on early diagnosis and prompt treatment using effective drugs. Children with severe malaria are often brought late to health facilities and traditional healt...

    Authors: Emmanuel A Makundi, Hamisi M Malebo, Paulo Mhame, Andrew Y Kitua and Marian Warsame
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:58
  37. Molecular markers of insecticide resistance can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in malaria vector populations. Monitoring of insecticide resistance in vector populations is an important ...

    Authors: Manisha A Kulkarni, Mark Rowland, Michael Alifrangis, Frank W Mosha, Johnson Matowo, Robert Malima, Justin Peter, Eliningaya Kweka, Issa Lyimo, Stephen Magesa, Ali Salanti, Manfred E Rau and Chris Drakeley
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:56
  38. As malaria becomes increasingly drug resistant and more costly to treat, there is increasing urgency to develop effective vaccines. In comparison to other stages of the malaria lifecycle, sexual stage antigens...

    Authors: Jack S Richards, Nicholas J MacDonald and Damon P Eisen
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:55
  39. In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) is frequent and intense in some areas.

    Authors: Mirjam Schunk, Wondimagegn P Kumma, Isabel Barreto Miranda, Maha E Osman, Susanne Roewer, Abraham Alano, Thomas Löscher, Ulrich Bienzle and Frank P Mockenhaupt
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2006 5:54

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