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  1. Efforts to improve the impact of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) should be informed by understanding of the causes of decay in effect. Holes in LLINs have been estimated to account for 7–11% of loss in ...

    Authors: Thomas Smith, Adrian Denz, Maurice Ombok, Nabie Bayoh, Hannah Koenker, Nakul Chitnis, Olivier Briet, Joshua Yukich and John E. Gimnig
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:476
  2. Model-based geostatistical (MBG) methods have been extensively used to map malaria risk using community survey data in low-resource settings where disease registries are incomplete or non-existent. However, th...

    Authors: Emanuele Giorgi, Peter M. Macharia, Jack Woodmansey, Robert W. Snow and Barry Rowlingson
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:471
  3. Anopheles arabiensis is a member of Anopheles gambiae complex and the main malaria vector in Sudan. There is insufficient population genetics data available on An. arabiensis for an understanding of vector popula...

    Authors: Mashair Sir El Khatim Mustafa, Zairi Jaal, Sumia Abu Kashawa and Siti Azizah Mohd Nor
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:469
  4. In Ethiopia, despite improvements in coverage and access, utilization of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) remains a challenge. Different household-level factors have been identified as associated with LL...

    Authors: Honelgn Nahusenay Hiruy, Ayele Zewde, Seth R. Irish, Semira Abdelmenan, Adugna Woyessa, Yonas Wuletaw, Hiwot Solomon, Mebrahtom Haile, Achamyelesh Sisay, Sheleme Chibsa, Alemayehu Worku, Josh Yukich, Yemane Berhane and Joseph Keating
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:468
  5. With effective vector control and case management, substantial progress has been made towards eliminating malaria on the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe (STP). This study assessed the dynamic changes in the g...

    Authors: Ying-An Chen, Tsen-Ju Shiu, Lien-Fen Tseng, Chien-Fu Cheng, Wei-Liang Shih, Arlindo Vicente de Assunção Carvalho and Kun-Hsien Tsai
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:467
  6. Central America and the island of Hispaniola have set out to eliminate malaria by 2030. However, since 2014 a notable upturn in the number of cases has been reported in the Mosquitia region shared by Nicaragua...

    Authors: Gustavo Fontecha, Alejandra Pinto, Osman Archaga, Sergio Betancourth, Lenin Escober, Jessica Henríquez, Hugo O. Valdivia, Alberto Montoya and Rosa Elena Mejía
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:465
  7. Malaria vector control in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is plagued by several major challenges, including inadequate infrastructure, lack of access to health care systems and preventative measures, and ...

    Authors: Janvier Bandibabone, Charles McLoughlin, Sévérin N’Do, Chimanuka Bantuzeko, Vital Byabushi, Muhigwa Jeanberckmans, Maite Guardiola, Bertin Zawadi, Abdoulaye Diabaté, Jorian Prudhomme, Thomas Walker and Louisa A. Messenger
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:464
  8. Malaria is one of the deadliest diseases in the world, particularly in Africa. As such, resistance to anti-malarial drugs is one of the most important problems in terms of global malaria control. This study as...

    Authors: Pedro Berzosa, Irene Molina de la Fuente, Thuy-Huong Ta-Tang, Vicenta González, Luz García, Ana Rodríguez-Galet, Ramón Díaz-Regañón, Rosario Galán, Laura Cerrada-Gálvez, Policarpo Ncogo, Matilde Riloha and Agustin Benito
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:463
  9. Molecular diagnostic tools have been incorporated in insecticide resistance monitoring programmes to identify underlying genetic basis of resistance and develop early warning systems of vector control failure....

    Authors: Sharon Mwagira-Maina, Steven Runo, Lucy Wachira, Stanley Kitur, Sarah Nyasende, Brigid Kemei, Eric Ochomo, Damaris Matoke-Muhia, Charles Mbogo and Luna Kamau
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:461
  10. A detailed analysis of household and individual level Plasmodium infection patterns in two low-endemic districts of Meghalaya was undertaken to better understand the epidemiology of malaria in northeast India.

    Authors: Rajiv Sarkar, Anne Kessler, Bandapkupar Mawkhlieng, Steven A. Sullivan, Mark L. Wilson, Jane M. Carlton and Sandra Albert
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:460
  11. Use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), community-based malaria education, prompt diagnosis and treatment are key programme components of malaria prevention and control i...

    Authors: Abebe Asale, Zewdu Abro, Bayu Enchalew, Alayu Teshager, Aklilu Belay, Menale Kassie and Clifford Maina Mutero
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:459
  12. In April 2017, the Thai Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) was alerted to a potential malaria outbreak among civilians and military personnel in Sisaket Province, a highly forested area bordering Cambodia. The o...

    Authors: Michelle E. Roh, Kanyarat Lausatianragit, Nithinart Chaitaveep, Krisada Jongsakul, Prayuth Sudathip, Chatree Raseebut, Sutchana Tabprasit, Prasert Nonkaew, Michele Spring, Montri Arsanok, Parat Boonyarangka, Sabaithip Sriwichai, Piyaporn Sai-ngam, Chaiyaporn Chaisatit, Peerapol Pokpong, Preecha Prempree…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:458
  13. Malaria is a global health problem for which novel therapeutic compounds are needed. To this end, a recently published novel family of antiplasmodial macrolides, strasseriolides AD, was herein subjected to in vi...

    Authors: Frederick Annang, Guiomar Pérez-Moreno, Caridad Díaz, Victor González-Menéndez, Nuria de Pedro Montejo, José Pérez del Palacio, Paula Sánchez, Scott Tanghe, Ana Rodriguez, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Juan Cantizani, Luis M. Ruiz-Pérez, Olga Genilloud, Fernando Reyes, Francisca Vicente and Dolores González-Pacanowska
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:457
  14. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends prompt malaria diagnosis with either microscopy or malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and treatment with an effective anti-malarial, as key interventions to co...

    Authors: Ruth N. Kigozi, JohnBaptist Bwanika, Emily Goodwin, Peter Thomas, Patrick Bukoma, Persis Nabyonga, Fred Isabirye, Paul Oboth, Carol Kyozira, Mame Niang, Kassahun Belay, Gloria Sebikaari, James K. Tibenderana and Sam Siduda Gudoi
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:456
  15. Access to healthcare is important in controlling malaria burden and, as a result, distance or travel time to health facilities is often a significant predictor in modelling malaria prevalence. Adding new healt...

    Authors: Kok Ben Toh, Justin Millar, Paul Psychas, Benjamin Abuaku, Collins Ahorlu, Samuel Oppong, Kwadwo Koram and Denis Valle
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:455
  16. Thailand is committed to eliminating malaria by 2024. From 2013 to 2020, the total number of malaria cases have decreased, from 37,741 to 4474 (an 88.1% reduction). However, infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, a...

    Authors: Rungniran Sugaram, Patcharida Boondej, Suttipat Srisutham, Chanon Kunasol, Watcharee Pagornrat, Usa Boonyuen, Arjen M Dondorp, Aungkana Saejeng, Prayuth Sudathip and Mallika Imwong
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:454
  17. As part of malaria prevention and control efforts, the distribution and density of malaria mosquitoes requires continuous monitoring. Resources for long-term surveillance of malaria vectors, however, are often...

    Authors: Marilyn Milumbu Murindahabi, Arash Hoseni, L. C. Corné Vreugdenhil, Arnold J. H. van Vliet, Jackie Umupfasoni, Alphonse Mutabazi, Emmanuel Hakizimana, P. Marijn Poortvliet, Leon Mutesa, Willem Takken and Constantianus J. M. Koenraadt
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:453
  18. RTS,S/AS01, the leading malaria vaccine has been recommended by the WHO for widespread immunization of children at risk. RTS,S/AS01-induced anti-CSP IgG antibodies are associated with the vaccine efficacy. Her...

    Authors: Robert M. Mugo, Kennedy Mwai, Jedidah Mwacharo, Faiz M. Shee, Jennifer N. Musyoki, Juliana Wambua, Edward Otieno, Philip Bejon and Francis M. Ndungu
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:452
  19. The devastating public health impact of malaria has prompted the need for effective interventions. Malaria control gained traction after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). However...

    Authors: Afolabi Owoloye, Michael Olufemi, Emmanuel T. Idowu and Kolapo M. Oyebola
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:451
  20. Malaria is a preventable disease that causes huge morbidity and mortality in malaria-endemic areas, especially among children and pregnant women. The malaria control programme focuses on the prevention of mosq...

    Authors: Verner N. Orish, Raymond Saa-Eru Maalman, Otchere Y. Donkor, Barbara Yordanis Henandez Ceruantes, Eric Osei, Hubert Amu, Prince Kubi Appiah, Kennedy Diema Konlan, Hadiru Mumuni, Eunji Kim, Siwoo Kim, Hajun Jung, Jones Ofori-Amoah, Philip Kofie, Martin Adjuik, Robert Kaba Alhassan…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:450
  21. The study aimed to analyse the likelihood of imported malaria in people with a suggestive clinical picture and its distinctive characteristics in a hospital in the south of Madrid, Spain.

    Authors: Alejandro Garcia-Ruiz de Morales, Covadonga Morcate, Elena Isaba-Ares, Ramon Perez-Tanoira and Jose A. Perez-Molina
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:449
  22. In recent years, the incidence rate of vivax malaria recurrence still had 3.1% in Yunnan Province population after eradication therapy using primaquine (PQ). In order to understand the specific failure reasons...

    Authors: Ying Dong, Herong Huang, Yan Deng, Yanchun Xu, Mengni Chen, Yan Liu and Canglin Zhang
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:448
  23. The return of chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa countries offers the opportunity for the reintroduction of chloroquine (CQ) either in combination with other drugs or as a single th...

    Authors: Kwame Kumi Asare, Justice Africa, Jennifer Mbata and Yeboah Kwaku Opoku
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:447
  24. In the Greater Mekong Subregion, adults are at highest risk for malaria, particularly those who visit forests. The absence of effective vector control strategies and limited periods of exposure during forest v...

    Authors: Monnaphat Jongdeepaisal, Mom Ean, Chhoeun Heng, Thoek Buntau, Rupam Tripura, James J. Callery, Thomas J. Peto, Franca Conradis-Jansen, Lorenz von Seidlein, Panarasri Khonputsa, Kulchada Pongsoipetch, Ung Soviet, Siv Sovannaroth, Christopher Pell and Richard J. Maude
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:446
  25. Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) is the largest multigene family in the genomes of most Plasmodium species. A variety of functions for the PIR proteins which they encode have been proposed, including antigeni...

    Authors: Timothy S. Little, Deirdre A. Cunningham, Audrey Vandomme, Carlos Talavera Lopez, Sarah Amis, Christopher Alder, John W. G. Addy, Sarah McLaughlin, Caroline Hosking, George Christophides, Adam J. Reid and Jean Langhorne
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:445
  26. Malaria elimination in Brazil poses several challenges, including the control of Plasmodium falciparum foci and the hidden burden of Plasmodium vivax in pregnancy. Maternal malaria and fetal health outcomes were ...

    Authors: Julio Abel Seijas-Chávez, Melissa S. Nolan, Mary K. Lynn, Maria José Francalino da Rocha, Muana da Costa Araújo, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca and Gabriel Zorello Laporta
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:444
  27. Though most of Panamá is free from malaria, localized foci of transmission persist, including in the Guna Yala region. Government-led entomological surveillance using an entomological surveillance planning too...

    Authors: Mario I. Ávila, Élodie A. Vajda, Eileen Jeffrey Gutiérrez, Daragh A. Gibson, Mariela Mosquera Renteria, Nicholas Presley, Daniel O’Reilly, Timothy A. Burton, Allison Tatarsky and Neil F. Lobo
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:443
  28. The histo-blood group ABO system has been associated with adverse outcomes in COVID-19, thromboembolic diseases and Plasmodium falciparum malaria. An integral part of the severe malaria pathogenesis is rosetting,...

    Authors: Pontus Hedberg, Madle Sirel, Kirsten Moll, Mpungu Steven Kiwuwa, Petter Höglund, Ulf Ribacke and Mats Wahlgren
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:441
  29. In Sahelian Africa, the risk of malaria increases with the arrival of the rains, particularly in young children. Following successful trials, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the use of seasonal...

    Authors: Patrick O. Ansah, Nana A. Ansah, Keziah Malm, Dennis Awuni, Nana Peprah, Sylvester Dassah, Sobe Yarig, Charles Manful, John Agbenyeri, John Awoonor-Williams, Wilfred Ofosu and Abraham R. Oduro
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:440
  30. The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine is currently being evaluated in a cluster-randomized pilot implementation programme in three African countries. This study seeks to identify whether vaccination could reach addit...

    Authors: H. Juliette T. Unwin, Lazaro Mwandigha, Peter Winskill, Azra C. Ghani and Alexandra B. Hogan
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:438
  31. Evidence on peer educators’ experiences of implementing the school-based educational interventions on malaria prevention would be used as inputs for malaria eliminating efforts. This study explored the accepta...

    Authors: Fira Abamecha, Alemayehu Deressa, Morankar Sudhakar, Lakew Abebe, Yohannes Kebede, Dejene Tilahun, Firanbon Teshome and Zewdie Birhanu
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:437
  32. The currently used malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is designed based on the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP). The pfcsp gene, besides having different polymorphic patterns, can vary between P. falci...

    Authors: Nouh Saad Mohamed, Hanadi AbdElbagi, Ahad R. Elsadig, Abdalla Elssir Ahmed, Yassir Osman Mohammed, Lubna Taj Elssir, Mohammed-Ahmed B. Elnour, Yousif Ali, Mohamed S. Ali, Omnia Altahir, Mustafa Abubakr, Emmanuel Edwar Siddig, Ayman Ahmed and Rihab Ali Omer
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:436
  33. Chronic and frequently recurring infectious diseases, such as malaria, are associated with expanded populations of atypical memory B cells (MBCs). These cells are different from classical MBCs by the lack of s...

    Authors: S. Jake Gonzales, Sebastiaan Bol, Ashley E. Braddom, Richard Sullivan, Raphael A. Reyes, Isaac Ssewanyana, Erica Eggers, Bryan Greenhouse and Evelien M. Bunnik
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:435
  34. The occurrence of artemisinin resistance (ART)-associated polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller (pfk13) gene before and after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in two r...

    Authors: Moses Ikegbunam, Johnson A. Ojo, Kossiwa Kokou, Ugonna Morikwe, Chukwuemeka Nworu, Chibuzo Uba, Charles Esimone, Thirumalaisamy P. Velavan and Olusola Ojurongbe
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:434
  35. Insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying of insecticides are used as the vector control interventions in the fight against malaria. Measuring the actual amount of deposits of insecticides on bed n...

    Authors: Harparkash Kaur, Elizabeth Louise Allan, Teunis A. Eggelte, Guillermo A. García and Feliciano Monti
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:433
  36. Since 2005, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Madagascar. Artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are the firs...

    Authors: Catherine M. Dentinger, Tovonahary Angelo Rakotomanga, Antsa Rakotondrandriana, Arinomenjanahary Rakotoarisoa, Marie Ange Rason, Leah F. Moriarty, Laura C. Steinhardt, Laurent Kapesa, Jocelyn Razafindrakoto, Samaly S. Svigel, Naomi W. Lucchi, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Eric S. Halsey and C. Arsène Ratsimbasoa
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:432
  37. Although considerable success in reducing the incidence of malaria has been achieved in Brazil in recent years, an increase in the proportion of cases caused by the harder-to-eliminate Plasmodium vivax parasite c...

    Authors: Cleber Matos de Morais, Kayo Henrique de Carvalho Monteiro, Jose Diego Brito-Sousa, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Vanderson Souza Sampaio, Patricia Takako Endo and Judith Kelner
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:431
  38. Plasmodium sporozoites are the highly motile forms of malaria-causing parasites that are transmitted by the mosquito to the vertebrate host. Sporozoites need to enter and cross several cellular and tissue barrier...

    Authors: Konrad Beyer, Simon Kracht, Jessica Kehrer, Mirko Singer, Dennis Klug and Friedrich Frischknecht
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:430
  39. Malaria causes significant mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa, especially among children under five years of age and places a huge economic burden on individuals and health systems. While this burde...

    Authors: Caroline Watts, Harrysone Atieli, Jason Alacapa, Ming-Chieh Lee, Guofa Zhou, Andrew Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Virginia Wiseman
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:429
  40. The changing global health landscape has highlighted the need for more proactive, efficient and transparent health policy-making. After more than 60 years of limited development, novel tools for vivax malaria ...

    Authors: Varunika Ruwanpura, Josselyn Neukom, Koen Peeters Grietens, Ric N. Price, Kamala Thriemer and Caroline A. Lynch
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:428
  41. Until recently, relatively little research has been done on how mosquitoes behave around the occupied bed net in the indoor environment. This has been partly remedied in the last few years through laboratory a...

    Authors: James F. Sutcliffe and Shaoman Yin
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:427
  42. Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite infection, increases as Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections decrease in Johor, Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the distribution o...

    Authors: Sandthya Pramasivan, Romano Ngui, Nantha Kumar Jeyaprakasam, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Van Lun Low, Norzihan Mohamed Hassan, Wan Yusoff Wan Sulaiman, Ropiah Jaraee, Roslinda Abdul Rahman, Jenarun Jelip and Indra Vythilingam
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:426
  43. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the vast majority of (severe) clinical malaria cases in most African settings. Other Plasmodium species often go undiagnosed but may still have clinical consequences.

    Authors: Daniel Ayo, Bakar Odongo, Joseph Omara, Chiara Andolina, Ole Mulder, Sarah G. Staedke and Teun Bousema
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:425
  44. Asymptomatic malaria infections largely remain undetected and act as a reservoir for continuous transmission. The study assessed the prevalence of submicroscopic asymptomatic malaria infections and anaemia in ...

    Authors: Paul M. Hayuma, Christian W. Wang, Edwin Liheluka, Vito Baraka, Rashid A. Madebe, Daniel T. R. Minja, Gerald Misinzo, Michael Alifrangis and John P. A. Lusingu
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:424
  45. In rural sub-Saharan Africa, thatch roofs are being replaced by metal roofs. Metal roofing, however, increases indoor temperatures above human comfort levels, and thus makes it more likely that residents will ...

    Authors: Majo Carrasco-Tenezaca, Ebrima Jatta, Musa Jawara, John Bradley, Margaret Pinder, Umberto D’Alessandro, Jakob Knudsen and Steve W. Lindsay
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:423
  46. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea can reduce mortality in children under five years (CU5) in resource-poor countries. There is growing interest in expanding malaria comm...

    Authors: Dean Sayre, Laura C. Steinhardt, Judickaelle Irinantenaina, Catherine Dentinger, Tsinjo Fehizoro Rasoanaivo, Laurent Kapesa, Jocelyn Razafindrakoto, Agathe Legrand, Nicole Prada, Julie Gutman, Lauren Lewis, Reziky Tiandraza Mangahasimbola, Mauricette Andriamananjara, Aimée Vololoniala Ravaoarinosy, Nicolas Ralemary, Andres Garchitorena…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:422

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