The extravascular compartment of the bone marrow: a niche for Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte maturation?
© Farfour et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 5 June 2012
Accepted: 31 July 2012
Published: 20 August 2012
Plasmodium falciparum immature gametocytes accumulate in the bone marrow, but their exact location in this tissue remains unclear.
The stage and deposition pattern of gametocytes was analysed on histological sections of a bone marrow sample collected in a patient with subacute P. falciparum malaria.
A majority (89%) of immature stages II to IV gametocytes and a minority (29%) of mature stage V gametocytes were observed in extravascular spaces.
Discussion and conclusion
These observations represent a valuable step towards understanding sequestration patterns of P. falciparum gametocytes and may ultimately lead to novel transmission-blocking interventions.
KeywordsMalaria Transmission Gametocyte Bone marrow Plasmodium falciparum
P. falciparum gametocytes (human erythrocytes infected with sexual-stage of P. falciparum) are essential for malaria transmission. However, knowledge on the fine interactions between gametocytes and human tissues is limited . Because erythrocytes circulate in vessels, P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes are predicted to remain in the intravascular compartment. Erythrocytes infected with mature asexual stages (mature trophozoites and schizonts) are sequestered in the lumen of small vessels via their adhesion to microvascular endothelial cells . Immature gametocytes are similarly absent from large vessels, but are present in the bone marrow. Smalley et al. have shown that in P. falciparum infected children, the density of immature gametocytes is 10-fold greater on bone marrow smears than on peripheral blood smears , however their exact location in the bone marrow has not been described.
A 42-year-old male patient was admitted to a peripheral hospital for headache and fever (39°C) 15 days after returning from Cameroon, where he had spent two months under suboptimal anti-malarial prophylaxis with doxycycline. Microbiological explorations, including thin and thick blood smears, were initially negative. However, the fever persisted and the haemoglobin level fell to 92g/L. The patient was referred to a university hospital with suspicion of a macrophage activation syndrome. A venous blood smear was performed on admission (i e, 10 days after onset of symptoms) and came back positive for P. falciparum (0.6% parasitaemia). A three-day course of oral atovaquone plus proguanil was effective, as assessed by fever clearance and disappearance of asexual parasite stages from subsequent blood smears. Few mature stage V gametocytes were observed on thick blood smears at day 3 and day 7. A bone marrow biopsy was performed after two days of treatment to exclude other causes of fever and anaemia.
Number (%) of gametocytes of each stage in the different compartments of the bone marrow
The stage and deposition pattern of gametocytes as analysed on histological sections, including the absence of co-localization with CD34-positive vascular structures suggest that immature P. falciparum gametocytes undergo part of their development in the extravascular spaces of the bone marrow. This development may also occur in other organs, the exploration of which is not possible in patients. The absence of co-localization with CD68-positive cells also suggests that the extravascular location of gametocytes was not induced by migration of gametocyte-containing monocytes from the blood to the extra-vascular spaces. Like mature asexual P. falciparum blood stages (pigmented trophozoites and schizonts), immature gametocytes are absent from large vessels . However, while mature asexual stages sequester in microvessels by adhering strongly to endothelial cells, immature gametocytes do not express high levels of known adhesins and are poorly adherent to endothelial cells in vitro[5, 6]. Their presence in the extravascular compartment provides a new, convincing explanation for this apparent contradiction. Absence of immature gametocytes from the peripheral circulation may indeed result from their location in extravascular spaces rather than from adherence to endothelial cells in the lumen of microvessels. While asexual parasite maturation from early ring stages to mature trophozoites and schizonts takes 1 to 2 days, gametocytes maturation from stage I to stage V is much longer and takes approximately 10 days [1, 7]. Therefore, extravascular spaces may provide a better niche for prolonged survival than the lumen of small vessels. Both mature asexual stages and immature gametocytes display a markedly increased stiffness as compared to that of uninfected red blood cells [8, 9]. Sequestration of P. falciparum- infected red blood cells away from the general circulation is considered a survival strategy to escape mechanical filtration by the spleen [4, 10, 11]. Unlike immature gametocytes, mature gametocytes are deformable  and can, therefore, circulate without being retained in the spleen . Drugs modifying the deformability of immature or mature gametocytes may influence their ability to squeeze and cross barriers between the intravascular and the extravascular compartments, as well as to flow through narrow splenic slits . Mature gametocytes must circulate in the periphery to be taken up by Anopheles then be transmitted to human beings. Interventions reducing their deformability may induce their mechanical retention in the spleen, thus removing them from the peripheral circulation. Such interventions would have a transmission-blocking effect. In conclusion, this observation highlights a singular aspect of P. falciparum gametocyte sequestration, which may lead to a better understanding of gametocyte survival mechanisms and may ultimately contribute in the progress toward malaria eradication.
The authors thank Dr Geneviève Milon for her valuable support. PB was supported by a grant OPP1043892 from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
- Bousema T, Drakeley C: Epidemiology and infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax gametocytes in relation to malaria control and elimination. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011, 24: 377-410. 10.1128/CMR.00051-10.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Scherf A, Pouvelle B, Buffet PA, Gysin J: Molecular mechanisms of Plasmodium falciparum placental adhesion. Cell Microbiol. 2001, 3: 125-131. 10.1046/j.1462-5822.2001.00109.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Smalley ME, Abdalla S, Brown J: The distribution of Plasmodium falciparum in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of Gambian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1981, 75: 103-105. 10.1016/0035-9203(81)90019-5.View ArticlePubMed
- Miller LH, Good MF, Milon G: Malaria pathogenesis. Science. 1994, 264: 1878-1883. 10.1126/science.8009217.View ArticlePubMed
- Day KP, Hayward RE, Smith D, Culvenor JG: CD36-dependent adhesion and knob expression of the transmission stages of Plasmodium falciparum is stage specific. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1998, 93: 167-177. 10.1016/S0166-6851(98)00040-1.View ArticlePubMed
- Silvestrini F, Tiburcio M, Bertuccini L, Alano P: Differential adhesive properties of sequestered asexual and sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum on human endothelial cells are tissue independent. PLoS One. 2012, 7: e31567-10.1371/journal.pone.0031567.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Eichner M, Diebner HH, Molineaux L, Collins WE, Jeffery GM, Dietz K: Genesis, sequestration and survival of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: parameter estimates from fitting a model to malariatherapy data. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2001, 95: 497-501. 10.1016/S0035-9203(01)90016-1.View ArticlePubMed
- Dearnley MK, Yeoman JA, Hanssen E, Kenny S, Turnbull L, Whitchurch CB, Tilley L, Dixon MW: Origin, composition, organization and function of the inner membrane complex of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. J Cell Sci. 2012, 10.1242/jcs.099002.
- Tibúrcio M, Niang M, Deplaine G, Perrot S, Bischoff E, Ndour A, Silvestrini F, Khattab A, Milon G, David P, Hardeman M, Vernick KD, Sauerwein RW, Preiser PR, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Buffet P, Alano P, Lavazec C: A switch in infected erythrocyte deformability at the maturation and blood circulation of Plasmodium falciparum transmission stages. Blood. 2012, 10.1182/blood-2012-03-414557.
- Buffet PA, Safeukui I, Deplaine G, Brousse V, Prendki V, Thellier M, Turner GD, Mercereau-Puijalon O: The pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in humans: insights from splenic physiology. Blood. 2011, 117: 381-392. 10.1182/blood-2010-04-202911.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Cranston HA, Boylan CW, Carroll GL, Sutera SP, Williamson JR, Gluzman IY, Krogstad DJ: Plasmodium falciparum maturation abolishes physiologic red cell deformability. Science. 1984, 223: 400-403. 10.1126/science.6362007.View ArticlePubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.