The world today is proud of the success and achievements that have been made in clinical development through research conducted around the world. Many diseases are being cured and many are prevented due to the presence of vaccines and other interventions. In low-income countries more vaccines are now available and more lives are being saved, with a significantly decreased number of children dying each year due to the increased immunization coverage .
Clinical research plays a vital role in complementing the overburdened national health delivery system, especially in rural, resource-poor settings . A malaria vaccine is among the promising new vaccines that are in the final stages of research. The development of this vaccine will save millions of lives, mostly in tropical settings.
Malaria persists as a major public health problem, and new tools for controlling the disease are needed to facilitate the current renewed commitment for its control or elimination . Optimal control of malaria disease may be met through a combination of methods such as vector control , chemotherapy  and/or vaccines . The challenge facing current control efforts, however, is the development of resistance to anti-malarial drugs and insecticides .
The primary health benefits of the malaria vaccine trial (MVT) refer to the major profits or gains that an individual acquires after having been vaccinated with the malaria vaccine, i.e. the efficacy and effectiveness of the malaria vaccine .
The secondary health benefits of the MVT refer to the additional benefits that an individual or community receives due to the presence of a malaria vaccine project in a certain geographical area. Examples of secondary health benefits may include: community health education by research staff; community access to quality and free medical care; provision of ambulance services to the community and provision of transport .
Several studies that have been conducted worldwide on community perception regarding clinical trials reported different findings. A study done in Papua New Guinea  on “Community response to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi)” reported that parents of participants in that study commented that their participation had brought them broader benefits as they travelled less often to the clinic since their children had been treated and protected by the trial medicine, and gave them more time for other activities such as farming. Indeed, mothers commonly enrolled more than one of their children in the study because of the benefits obtained from the study. For example, trial staff were considered to be diligent and caring compared to government health staff who were rude, slow to deal with mothers and did not give proper care. One mother conceded that government health workers were rude because they have a heavy workload. This study reported both the primary and secondary benefits of the malaria drug trial . In addition the IPTi malaria trial was able to distribute new bed nets to all participants in the trial. The provision of a bed net was perceived by the community as a secondary health benefit established by the IPTi trial .
A study done in Malawi  on “Why mothers choose to enrol their children in malaria clinical studies and involvement of relatives in decision making”, reported that the majority of respondents joined the intermittent prevention therapy post-discharge (IPTpd) malaria research due to the secondary health benefits, such as access to quality medical care, rather than the investigative aspects of the research. They also decided to enrol their children in order to benefit from the material and monetary incentives which included soap, peanut butter, orange drink, transport money, napkins, mosquito nets, basins and iron tablets that were being given to participants by the project.
Another study in Kilifi on the Kenyan coast  on “Community understanding and perceptions of a malaria vaccine trial (MVT)” reported that the trial was generally described as some form of assistance, as a project aimed at ensuring good health in children through prevention, treatment and check-ups. This was also true for those who apparently understood the research aims of the trial. Linked to this finding, the main reasons for joining and staying in the study were reported by most to be the individual benefits associated with the study, such as free treatment, transport to and from Kilifi District Hospital in case of any illness and access to the Principal Investigator (PI), who is medically qualified.
Lusingu, the Principal Investigator of the current phase 3 MVT in Korogwe, reported during an interview with “one blog” that MVTs have led to a massive investment in health infrastructure in the communities where vaccine trials have been implemented. For example, a fully equipped modern laboratory that specializes in parasitology, haematology, biochemistry and microbiology has been built in the study area (Korogwe) and is now fully functional. Vaccine ‘cold chain,’ X-ray services, paediatric care and referral systems have all been enhanced in the study area. Important health services have also been provided to both participants and non-participants in the trial and community members’ compliance with treatment and attitudes toward health-seeking behaviour have improved . This personal interview in Korogwe reported the secondary health benefits of the MVT but focused only on the provider perceptions and not community perceptions. This MVT has been able to employ more than one hundred staff, who have different levels of training ranging from secondary education to masters level.
Understanding community perceptions on the secondary health benefits of this MVT is crucial and the findings of this study will add to the body of knowledge already available in the literature by highlighting the secondary health benefits of the MVT in the community, which may prompt active community involvement in future clinical trials.
Results from this study will provide additional evidence to relevant stakeholders, such as malaria vaccine manufactures, sponsors and policy makers to guide MVTs, particularly in Tanzania and throughout Africa. This paper reports the community perceptions on the secondary health benefits established by the MVT in the Korogwe site, Tanzania.