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Table 4 Predictors of a risk of obtaining false positive RDT results among individuals with negative blood smears as determinants of RDT specificity in the longitudinal study and CSS in Korogwe and Muheza districts

From: Accuracy of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in community studies and their impact on treatment of malaria in an area with declining malaria burden in north-eastern Tanzania

Variable/covariate Longitudinal study CSS
  Specificity (%) Unadjusted
OR(-value)
Adjusted
OR(p-value)
Specificity (%) Unadjusted
OR(-value)
Adjusted
OR(p-value)
RDT type       
Paracheck 6216/7226(86.0) reference reference 1857/2018(92.0) reference reference
Parahit 6475/7164(90.4) 0.65(< 0.001) 0.48(< 0.001) 2580/2687(96.0) 0.40(< 0.001) 0.53(< 0.001)
Age group       
< 5 years 3119/3441(93.6) reference reference 1738/1847(94.1) reference reference
≥5 years 9497/10979(86.5) 2.30(< 0.001) 2.86(< 0.001) 2699/2858(94.4) 0.93(0.625) 1.01(0.935)
Fever (axillary temperature ≥37.5°C)       
No fever 9492/10555(90.1) reference reference 4309/4563(94.4) reference reference
With fever 3198/3856(82.9) 1.88(< 0.001) 2.40(< 0.001) 98/111(88.3) 2.25(0.007) 2.84(0.001)
Year*       
2007 3707/4396(84.3) reference reference 917/977(93.9) reference reference
2008 3944/4678(84.3) 1.00(0.982) 0.57(< 0.001) 940/1041(90.3) 1.64(0.003) 0.97(0.850)
2009 3502/3753(93.3) 0.38(< 0.001) 0.28(< 0.001) 1230/1305(94.3) 0.93(0.693) 0.99(0.955)
2010 1537/1563(98.3) 0.09(< 0.001) 0.10(< 0.001) 1350/1382(97.7) 0.36(< 0.001) 0.38(< 0.001)
Location**       
Highland 4642/5381(86.3) reference reference 1321/1340(98.6) reference reference
Lowland 8049/9009(89.3) 0.75(< 0.001) 0.74(< 0.001) 3116/3365(92.6) 5.55(< 0.001) 7.33(< 0.001)
  1. RDT = Malaria rapid diagnostic tests, CSS = cross-sectional surveys, OR = odds ratio
  2. *Year of study was used to represent malaria parasite prevalence in both studies.
  3. **Geographical location of the villages based on altitude indicating level of malaria transmission