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Table 2 Clinical markers for diagnosis

From: Mathematical models of malaria - a review

Polymerase Chain Reaction (P): For identification of malaria parasites in blood, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is now a common and often vital technique, which amplifies a minute amount of DNA of the parasite across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence [51, 52]. Due to absence of parasite in susceptible (S) and recovered (R) classes PCR indicates negativity whereas for exposed (E) and infected classes (I) PCR shows positivity.
Sero-conversion (Sc): To determine antibody positivity as a result of infection or immunization, the clinical technique Serology is used. The development of detectable specific antibodies to microorganisms in the blood serum (Sero-conversion) is a reliable indicator for different infectious diseases including malaria [53]. Before Sero-conversion, the blood test shows Sero-negativity for the antibody (in susceptible and exposed classes); after Sero-conversion it shows Sero-positivity for the antibody (in infected and recovered classes).
Cellular immunity (C): Parasite infection lead to development of specific memory immune cells (T-cells and/or B-cells), which is detected positive through clinical diagnostic of cellular immunity (C) in the recovered class.