Schematic overview of the mapping procedures and methods for Plasmodium falciparum endemicity. Blue boxes describe input data. Orange boxes denote models and experimental procedures; green boxes indicate output data; dashed lines represent intermediate outputs and solid lines final outputs. U/PU/R = urban/peri-urban/rural; UNPP = United Nations Population Prospects. Labels A1-5 denote supplementrary information in Additional files 1, 2, 3, 4 &5.