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Table 1 An overview of repellent plant efficacy from literature review

From: Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing

Plant Location Other names Repellent compound(s) Tested mode of use Repellency % protection Study type Ref
MYRTACEAE        
Corymbia citriodora Australia
Brazil
Bolivia
China
India
Ethiopia
Tanzania
Kenya
lemon eucalyptus
lemon scented gum
quwenling
citronellal
PMD (by product of
hidrodistillation)
(p-menthane-3,8-diol)
citronellol
limonene
geraniol
isopulegol
δ-pinene
30% PMD applied topically 96.88% protection from mosquitoes for 4 hours field study in Bolivia [45]
PMD towelette (0.575g) applied topically 90% protection from An. arabiensis for 6 hours laboratory study [112]
50% PMD applied topically 100% protection from An gambiae and An. funestus for 6-7 hours field study in Tanzania [113]
20% PMD (1.7 mg/cm2) applied topically 100% protection for 11-12 hours against A. stephensi laboratory study [64]
20% PMD applied topically 100% protection against Ae. Aegypti for 120 minutes Laboratory study [52]
thermal expulsion (leaves) 78.7 % protection from An. arabiensis
76.8% protection from An. pharaoensis
field study in Ethiopia [114]
direct burning (leaves) 70.1 % protection from An. arabiensis
72.9% protection from An. pharaoensis
field study in Ethiopia [114]
periodic thermal expulsion (leaves) 74.5% protection from An. gambiae s.s. semi-field study in Kenya [62]
periodic direct burning (leaves) 51.3% protection from An. gambiae s.s. semi-field study in Kenya [62]
thermal expulsion (leaves) 48.71% protection from An. gambiae s.l. field study in Kenya [115]
Eucalyptus spp. Guinea-Bissau
Ethiopia
Tanzania
Portugal
eucalyptus 1,8-cineole
citronellal
Z- and α- citral
α-pinene
thermal expulsion (leaves) 72.2% protection from mosquitoes for 2 hours field study in Guinea Bissau [116]
E. camaldulensis Ethiopia    thermal expulsion (leaves) 71.9 % protection from An. arabiensis
72.2% protection from An. pharaoensis
field study in Ethiopia [114]
    direct burning (leaves) 65.3 % protection from An. arabiensis
66.6% protection from An. pharaoensis
field study in Ethiopia [114]
Eugenia caryophyllus or Syzygium aromaticum or Eugenia aromaticu India clove
lavang
cravinho-da-india
Eugenol
carvacrol
thymol
cinnamaldehyde
100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 225 minutes
100% protection against An. albimanus for 213 minutes
laboratory study [65]
100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 120 min.
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 240 min.
100% protection against An. dirus for 210 min.
laboratory study [31]
VERBENACEAE        
Lippia spp. Kenya
Tanzania
Ghana
Zimbabwe
lemon bush myrcene
linalool
α-pinene
eucalyptol
    
L. javanica    alloparinol
camphor
limonene
α –terpeneol
verbenone
5mg/cm2 plant extract applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 8 hours laboratory study [117]
alcohol plant extract applied topically 76.7% protection against An arabiensis for 4 hours laboratory study [118]
L. uckambensis   fever tea   potted plant 33.3% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [119]
periodic thermal expulsion (leaves) 45.9% protection against An. gambiae s.s. semi-field system in Kenya [62]
periodic direct burning (leaves) 33.4% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field system in Kenya [62]
potted plant 25.01% protection against An.gambiae s.l field study in Kenya [115]
L. cheraliera    eucalyptol
caryophyllene
ipsdienone
p-cymene
    
Lantana camara Kenya
Tanzania
lantana
spanish flag
West Indian
lantana
Wild sage
caryophylene potted plant 32.4% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [119]
potted plant 27.22% protection against An. gambiae s.l. field study in Kenya [115]
flower extract in coconut oil 94.5% protection against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for one hour laboratory study [120]
periodic thermal expulsion (leaves) 42.4% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [62]
LAMIACEAE        
Ocimum spp. O.americanum Kenya
Tanzania
Zimbabwe
Nigeria
Ghana
Cameroon
Eritrea
Ethiopia (…)
Tree basil
nchu avum
lime basil
kivumbasi
Myeni madongo
African blue basil
hairy basil
p-cymene
estragosl
linalool
linoleic acid
eucalyptol
eugenol
camphor
citral
thujone
limonene
ocimene
and others
potted plant 39.70% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [119]
potted plant 37.91% protection against An. gambiae s.l. field study in Kenya [115]
fresh plants combined with O. suave bruised and applied topically 50% protection against An. gambiae s.l. field study in Tanzania [121]
periodic thermal expulsion (leaves and seeds) 43.1.% protection against An gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [62]
periodic direct burning (leaves and seeds) 20.9% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [62]
100% essential oil combined with vanillin 5% applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 6.5 hours1
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 8 hours
100% protection against An. dirus for 8 hours
laboratory study [34]
O. suave     thermal expulsion (leaves) 73.6 % protection from An. arabiensis
75.1% protection from An. pharaoensis
field study in Ethiopia [114]
direct burning (leaves) 71.5 % protection from An. arabiensis
79.7% protection from An. pharaoensis
field study in Ethiopia [114]
periodic thermal expulsion (leaves and seeds) 53.1% protection from An. gambiae s.s. semi-field study in Kenya [62]
periodic direct burning (leaves and seeds) 28.0% protection from An. gambiae s.s. semi-field study in Kenya [62]
O. basilicum     thermal expulsion (leaves) 78.7 % protection from An. arabiensis
79.2% protection from An. pharaoensis
field study in Ethiopia [114]
direct burning (leaves) 73.1 % protection from An. arabiensis
70.0% protection from An. pharaoensis
field study in Ethiopia [114]
100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection for 70 minutes laboratory study [31]
O. kilimandscharikum     thermal expulsion (leaves and seeds) 44.54% protection against An. gambiae s.l. field study in Kenya [115]
thermal expulsion (leaves and seeds) 37.63% protection against An. funestus field study in Kenya [115]
periodic thermal expulsion (leaves and seeds) 52.0% protection against An. gambiae s.s. semi-field study in Kenya [62]
periodic direct burning (leaves and seeds) 26.4% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [62]
O. forskolei     fresh plants hung indoors 53% protection against mosquitoes entering human dwelling field study in Eritrea [122]
Hyptis spp. Hyptis suaveolens Kenya
Tanzania
Ghana
The Gambiae
bushmint
wild hops
wild spikenard
hangazimu
hortelã-do-campo
myrcene smouldering on charcoal 85.4% repellency against mosquitoes for 2 hours field study in Guinea Bissau [116]
fresh leaves 73.2% repellency against mosquitoes for 2 hours field study in Guinea Bissau [116]
periodic direct burning (leaves and flowers) 20.8% repellency against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [62]
Mentha spp. M. piperata Brazil
Bolivia
hortelã-do-campo
peppermint
  100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 45 minutes laboratory study [65]
M. arvensis   menta
Japanese mint
  100% essential oil volatilized in a kerosene lamp 41% protection indoors against Mansonia spp field study in Bolivia [17]
Thymus spp. Th. vulgaris China
Former Soviet
Union
Korea
Middle-East
Mediterranean
thyme α-terpinene
carvacrol
thymol
p-cymene
linalool
geraniol
α-terpinene topically 97.3% protection against Culex pipiens sallens for 82 min laboratory study [123]
carvacrol topically 94.7% protection against C. pipiens sallens for 80 min   
thymol topically 91.8% protection against C. pipiens sallens for 70 min laboratory study [123]
linalool topically 91.7% protection agains C. pipiens sallens for 65 min   
p-cymene 89.0% protection agains C. pipiens sallens for 45.2 min   
100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection against An. albimanus for 105 minutes and Ae. aegypti for 135 minutes laboratory study [65]
direct burning (leaves) 85-09% protection for 60-90 min field study [20]
Pogostemon spp. China Patchouli   100% essential oil applied 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 120 min laboratory study [31]
Pogostemon cablin India
Malaysia
Thailand
Oriza   topically 100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 150 min
100% protection against An. dirus for 710 minutes
  
POACEAE        
Cymbopogon spp. China
India
Indonesia
      
C. nardus Brazil   citronellal 40% essential oil applied topically 100% protection for 7-8 hours against An. stephensi laboratory study [64]
100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 120 min
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 100 min
100% protection against An. dirus for 70 minutes
laboratory study [31]
10% applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 20 minutes laboratory study [52]
C. martini Tanzania
Kenya
palmarosa geraniol topically
(100% essential oil)
100% protection against An. culicifacies for 12 hours
96.3% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 12 hours
field study in India [124]
topically
(100% essential oil)
98.8% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 10 hours laboratory study [124]
C. citratus USA
South África Bolívia
lemongrass oil grass citral α-pinene topically 74% protection against An. darlingi for 2.5h
95% protection against Mansonia spp. for 2.5 hours
field study in Bolivia [17]
Methanol leaf extract applied topically (2.5mg/m2) 78.8 % protection against An. arabiensis for 12 hours laboratory study [125]
100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection for 30 minutes laboratory study [31]
C. winterianius     100% essential oil combined with vanillin 5% applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 6.5 hours
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 8 hours
100% protection against An. dirus for 8 hours
laboratory study [34]
C. excavatus     alcohol plant extract applied topically 66.7% protection against An. arabiensis for 3 hours laboratory study [118]
Pelargonium reniforme   rose geranium   alcohol plant extract applied topically 63.3 protection against An. arabiensis for 3 hours laboratory study [118]
MELIACEAE        
Azadirachta indica India
Sri Lanka
China
Brazil Bolívia
Pakistan
Ethiopia
Guinea Bissau
Kenya
Tanzania (…)
Neem azadirachtin
saponins
direct burning (leaves) 76.0% protection from mosquitoes for 2 hours field study in Guinea Bissau [116]
periodic thermal expulsion (leaves) 24.5% protection from An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [62]
1% neem oil volatilized in a kerosene lamp 94.2% protection from Anopheles spp.
80% protection from Culex spp.
field study in India [126]
2% neem oil applied topically 56.75% protection from mosquitoes for 4 hours field study in Bolivia [45]
ASTERACEAE        
Tagetes minuta Uganda
Zimbabwe
India
Khaki weed   topically 86.4% protection againt An. stepehensi for 6 hours laboratory study [127]
topically 84.2% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 6 hours laboratory study [127]
topically 75% protection against Ae. aegypti for 6 hours laboratory study [127]
fresh leaves (4Kg) reduced human landings indoors field study in Uganda [128]
Artemisia spp.
A. vulgaris
India
Egypt
Italy
Canada
USA
mugwort
wormwood
St. Johns plant
Old uncle henry
Sailors tobacco
camphor
linalool terpenen-4-ol
α-and β-thujone
β-pinene
    
A. monosperma Siberia Brazil Felon herb
Naughty man
myrcene
limonene
cineol
5% leave extract applied topically 100 % protection for 4 hours field study in Egypt 112
CAESALPINIACEAE        
Daniellia oliveri Guinea-Bissau
The Gambiae
churai
santão
santang
santango
  direct burning (bark) 77.9% protection against mosquitoes for 2 hours field study in Guinea Bissau [116]
direct burning (bark) 77% protection against mosquitoes field study in The Gambiae [130]
FABACEAE
Glycine max
Worldwide Soya   2% soya bean oil 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 95 minutes laboratoty study [52]
RUTACEAE
Zanthoxylum limonella
Thailand makaen   100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 120 min
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 170 min
laboratory study [31]
10% essential oil combined with 10% clove oil 100% protection against An. dirus for 190 minutes laboratory study [64]
Citrus hystrix Indonesia
Malaysia
Thailand
Laos
Kaffir lime
Limau purut
  100% essential oil combined with vanillin 5% applied topically 100% protection against An. stephensi for 8 hours
100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 3 hours
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 1.5 hours
100% protection against An. dirus for 2.5 hours
laboratory study [34]
ZINGIBERACEAE
Curcuma longa
  Turmeric
Curcuma
Indian saffron
  100% essential oil combined with vanillin 5% applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 4.5 hours
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 8 hours
100% protection against An. dirus for 8 hours
laboratory study [34]