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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Low antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum and imbalanced pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with severe malaria in Mozambican children: a case–control study

Parametera Clinical groups
SM (N = 67) UM (N = 67) Matched comparisonc P
Demographic data
Age (months) 28 (16, 39) 29 (15, 38) - -
Males, n (%) 42 (63) 42 (63) - -
Physical findings     
Temperature (°C) 38.6 (37.9, 39.2) 38 (36.4, 39.5) 0.3 (−0.7, 2.2) 0.227
Weight (kg) 11.1 (8.9, 13) 10.9 (9.6, 12.8) 0 (−1.6, 1.2) 1.000
Malnutrition, n (%) 5 (8) 2 (3) 4 (6) 0.453
Oral candidiasis, n (%) 1 (1) 1 (1) 2 (3) 1.000
Hepatomegaly, n (%) 13 (19) 2 (3) 13 (19) 0.005
Splenomegaly, n (%) 35 (52) 12 (18) 35 (52) <0.001
N° of days with symptomsb 1 (1, 3) 1 (1, 2) 0 (0, 1) 0.192
Laboratory parameters
Parasitaemia by qPCR, (×103/μL) 34.2 (7.5, 151.3) 13.3 (1.7, 51.6) 2.1 (−1.0, 21.8) 0.087
Parasitaemia by microscopy, (×103/μL) 40.4 (17.3, 99.3) 34.7 (11.5, 71.3) 12.9 (−10.3, 58.3) 0.036
Multiplicity of infection 3 (2, 4) 3 (3, 4) 0 (−1, 2) 0.070
Packed cell volume (%) 26 (16, 31) 31 (28, 34) −6 (−15, 0) <0.001
Platelets (×109/L) 117 (70, 185) 145 (92, 192) −38 (−110, 43) 0.043
Glucose (mM) 5.8 (4.6, 7) 5.8 (5.3, 6.9) −0.1 (−1.6, 1.2) 0.702
White blood cells (×109/L) 10 (6.8, 12.7) 9.1 (7.2, 11.5) 0.7 (−2.8, 3.5) 0.110
Lymphocytes (%) 35.5 (24.7, 46) 40.6 (30.2, 50.8) −7.6 (−19.0, 9.1) 0.008
Neutrophils (%) 56.9 (42.9, 67.1) 53.7 (36.9, 65.3) 5.8 (−5.1, 10.2) 0.043
Creatinin (U/L) 34 (30, 38) 34 (30, 39) −1 (−6, 6) 0.470
Bilirubin (μM) 24 (14, 37) 13 (10, 21) 10 (−1, 23) <0.001
ALTc (U/L) 31.5 (19, 39) 28 (1, 36) 4 (−11, 15) 0.376
Lactate (mM) 3.8 (2.3, 5.1) 2.3 (1.9, 3.2) 1.0 (−0.3, 2.4) 0.001
SM symptoms
Prostration, n (%) 50 (75)    
ARD c, n (%) 34 (51)    
Severe anaemia, n (%) 22 (33)    
Multiple seizures, n (%) 19 (28)    
Hypoglycaemia, n (%) 5 (8)    
Cerebral malaria, n (%) 3 (5)    
N° of SM symptoms, n (%):     
One 23 (34)    
Two 27 (40)    
≥ three 17 (25)    
  1. a Presented as medians (inter-quartile range), except when indicated. qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ARD, acidosis and/or respiratory distress.
  2. b Fever, cough or vomits.
  3. c Matched comparison reports the median difference (inter-quartile range) between SM and UM values for continuous variables or the number (%) of divergent pairs for categorical variables. P-values calculated using McNemar´s or Sign test for matched pairs. All comparisons were corrected by the Monte Carlo permutation test (1000 random permutations).