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Table 2 The effect of early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia on subsequent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)

From: Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in the first half of pregnancy, uterine and umbilical artery blood flow, and foetal growth: a longitudinal Doppler ultrasound study

  Early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia No early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia
RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI)
IUGR
Unadjusted 1.8 (1.1, 2.9) 1.0 Ref.
Adjustedab
 Primigravidae 3.6 (2.1, 6.2) 1.1 (0.6, 1.9)
 Multigravidae 1.4 (0.8, 2.5) 1.0 Ref.
Repeat IUGR
Unadjusted 2.2 (1.1, 4.2) 1.0 Ref.
Adjustedcd
 Primigravidae 5.6 (2.8, 11.3) 1.2 (0.5, 3.0)
 Multigravidae 1.4 (0.6, 3.6) 1.0 Ref.
  1. GEE, generalized estimating equation; IUGR, intrauterine growth restriction; RR, risk ratios; MUAC, mid-upper arm circumference.
  2. a. Adjusted for foetal sex and low baseline MUAC.
  3. b. Interaction term (early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia*primigravidae) p = 0.035.
  4. c. Adjusted for foetal sex and low baseline MUAC.
  5. d. Interaction term (early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia*primigravidae) p = 0.06.
  6. GEE log-binomial model estimated unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RR) for the effect of early pregnancy malaria parasitaemia on subsequent IUGR episodes and repeat IUGR episodes (n = 544). Adjusted models stratified by gravidity. Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2005–2006.