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Table 2 Risk factors associated with placental volume: z-scores

From: Effect of malaria on placental volume measured using three-dimensional ultrasound: a pilot study

   N (%) Z-score Mean ± SD P-value
Smoking Yes 15 (18) 0.00 ± 1.1 0.73
  No 69 (82) -0.11 ± 1.0  
Primigravida Yes 31 (37) -0.14 ± 1.1 0.72
  No 53 (63) -0.06 ± 1.0  
Non-malarial infection Yes 9 (11) -0.14 ± 0.55 0.80
  No 75 (89) -0.08 ± 1.1  
Anaemia Yes 16 (19) -0.38 ± 0.86 0.16
  No 68 (81) -0.02 ± 1.1  
Teenager Yes 10 (12) 0.09 ± 1.5 0.70
  No 74 (88) -0.11 ± 1.0  
Malaria* Yes 19 (23) -0.38 ± 1.0 0.17
  No 65 (77) 0.00 ± 1.0  
P. falciparum* Yes 4 (6) -1.30 ± 0.4 0.003
  No 65 (94) 0.00 ± 1.0  
P. vivax* Yes 15 (19) -0.13 ± 1.0 0.66
  No 65 (81) 0.00 ± 1.0  
  1. *occurring between the CRL dating and volume scans