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Table 1 Larvicidal activity of different extracts of V.anthelmintica seeds against Late III/Early VI instar larvae of A. stephensi. No mortality was observed in the controls

From: Exploration of larvicidal activity of Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) wild seed crude extracts in different solvents against malaria (Anopheles stephensi) and dengue (Aedes aegypti) vectors

Solvent used for extraction Concentration of crude extract (ppm) Mortality (%) LC50 (ppm) (LCL - UCL) LC90(ppm)(LCL-UCL) X 2a
Ethanol 50 100 1.945 10.492 5.220
  25 99 (1.488 - 2.392) (8.479 - 13.837)  
  12.5 92    
  6.25 75    
  3.13 63    
  1.56 48    
Hexane 50 72 22.452 147.764 2.725
  25 48 (18.692 - 27.831) (100.792 - 248.774)  
  12.5 36    
  6.25 23    
  3.13 9    
  1.56 2    
Acetone 50 83 9.124 74.713 2.231
  25 72 (7.606 - 10.957) (53.036 - 118.306)  
  12.5 62    
  6.25 41    
  3.13 28    
  1.56 11    
Chloroform 50 100 3.535 18.324 14.713**
  25 98 (1.880 - 5.401) (10.974 - 52.048)  
  12.5 79    
  6.25 57    
  3.13 45    
  1.56 34    
Methanol 50 100 3.974 15.979 8.367
  25 97 (3.413 - 4.567) (13.198 - 20.310)  
  12.5 87    
  6.25 56    
  3.13 40    
  1.56 25    
  1. LC50 Lethal concentration that kills 50% of exposed larvae; LC90 Lethal concentration that kills 90% of exposed larvae; LCL Lower confidence limits; UCL Upper confidence limits; χ2Chi-square; ** Significant at P <0.01; a degree of freedom 4