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Volume 11 Supplement 1

Challenges in malaria research

  • Poster presentation
  • Open Access

Knowledge and practices of malaria prevention with ITNs in post-and near-elimination areas of Vanuatu

  • 1,
  • 2, 6,
  • 3,
  • 4 and
  • 5
Malaria Journal201211 (Suppl 1) :P59

  • Published:


  • Malaria
  • Malaria Prevention
  • Malaria Incidence
  • Malaria Elimination
  • Malaria Diagnosis


Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) remain an important tool for sustained malaria control and play an integral part in malaria elimination strategies. As malaria incidence decreases in holodemic areas, however, proactive and regular use of ITNs may simultaneously decline if risk perception diminishes.


In Summer 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of three communities in Vanuatu: i) where malaria has been locally eliminated (Aneityum), ii) where malaria remains present but with rapidly declining incidence (Ambae), and iii) an urban area where malaria transmission may or may not occur (Efate). Respondents were asked a battery of questions regarding knowledge of malaria, ITN possession and use, and compliance with other anti-malaria interventions. Information on basic demographics, education levels, dietary habits and household economic activities were also recorded.


Residents of Aneityum (malaria eliminated) reported near universal use of ITNs, but uneven knowledge of malaria, particularly in younger individuals born around the time of malaria elimination. Residents in the other communities reported less consistent, though high levels of ITN use despite past individual malaria diagnoses.


Results indicate that achieving sustained high levels of ITN use in near- and post-elimination contexts is possible, but that maintaining awareness could present a long-term challenge to prevent reintroduction and recrudensence. Sustained local community cooperation will be essential to maintaining elimination efforts worldwide.

Authors’ Affiliations

University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Ml, USA
Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan
State University of New York, Binghamton, New York, USA
Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan
Ministry of Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Karolinska University, Stockholm, Sweden


© Larson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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