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Table 3 Comparisons in strategies, achievements and challenges between historical and contemporary vector control efforts

From: Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia

Attribute Historical Contemporary
Strategies LSM (simple EM and Larviciding) as main thrust interventions and IRS as supplementary. Primarily based on IRS and ITNs as frontline tools, supplemented with LSM
Targeted vector control interventions confined to urban areas with limited political will. Nationwide universal coverage with vector control tools deployed in both rural and urban areas with enhanced political commitment.
Implementation by full time public health workers from the Mines, MoH and Local authorities. Evidence based implementation by community based resource persons.
Achievements High coverage of interventions reducing malaria disease to a notifiable level in operational settings Strong inter-sectoral collaboration between private and public sector with appreciable impact on the disease in both rural and urban areas
Monitored species composition, their relative densities and sporozoite rates in vector populations Robust entomological monitoring of impact with a rational insecticide resistance management strategy
Full commitment by municipalities with enhanced with the enforcement of strong statutory instruments Strong monitoring & evaluation and IEC. Geo-coding of structures, efforts to determine the impact of interventions on vectors
Challenges Confined to urban areas, lack of advocacy and social mobilization. Lack of utilization of ITNs and abuse. Lack advocacy on supplementary interventions resulting in limitation in their funding.
Weak and limited environmental and personal safeguards Increased population, coordination at provincial and district levels
Limited entomological monitoring including impact of interventions on vectors Limited enforcement of statutory instruments, lack of total commitment by municipalities.