Plasmodium falciparum basic reproductive number ( PfR
) changes and urbanization. Countries in red show a greater percentage increase in urban area over the past century in areas of the country with the greatest magnitude of PfRC decreases than areas that showed the smallest changes. Countries in yellow show the reverse. Countries in light grey had either insufficient variation in PfRC changes, or no transmission. Countries in dark grey have either always been malaria free, or only exhibited unstable transmission.