Genetic relationship between Djiboutian Plasmodium falciparum genotypes observed at four time points (1998, 1999, 2002, and 2009). Unstratified analysis that does not take into account the year of sampling. This graphical representation of relationships between closely-related genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum is based on eBurst algorithm . A global optimization selects the more likely evolutionary pattern and highlights potential ancestral (or founding) genotype(s) of cluster of closely-related genotypes [58, 59]. A total of 62 genotypes were found (numbers 1 to 62). A separation level between two distinct genotypes is represented by i) a solid line, a different profile in only one locus of microsatellite marker, i e, single-locus variant (SLV) and ii) a dotted line, a double-loci variant (DLV). The distance between genotypes in the diagram does not have any relation with genetic distance between genotypes. The area of circles depends on the number of individuals with the same genotype. The colour code is as follows: 1998 (red dot), 1999 (blue dot), 2002 (light green dot), and 2009 (khaki dot). In 2009, three malaria cases originated from Southeast Ethiopia (dark green dot) and one from Debrezeit, Ethiopia (purple dot). The proportion of each colour inside one circle depends on the number of individuals with the same genotype for the year considered. Red lines indicate relationships that are modified in stratified analysis.