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Table 1 Top ten Plasmodium falciparum/Plasmodium vivax betweenness centrality airports with their degrees in a sub-network that only contains direct links from airports in Plasmodium falciparum- or Plasmodium vivax -endemic areas

From: Global malaria connectivity through air travel

Top ten P. falciparum centrality airports
Airport City Country Normalized betweenness centrality Degree
NBO Nairobi Kenya 47.35 80
MBA Mombasa Kenya 32.44 27
JRO Kilimanjaro Tanzania 32.39 14
BOM Mumbai India 30.41 104
ADD Addis Ababa Ethiopia 28.21 64
DEL Delhi India 23.16 111
JIB Djibouti Djibouti 19.77 15
ADE Aden Yemen 18.63 15
MGQ Mogadishu Somalia 14.45 8
HRE Harare Zimbabwe 14.35 20
Top ten P. vivax centrality airports
Airport City Country Normalized betweenness centrality Degree
BKK Bangkok Thailand 96.43 146
ICN Seoul South Korea 78.12 150
DEL Delhi India 59.55 133
BOM Mumbai India 34.17 116
KMG Kunming China 30.79 90
PHX Phoenix USA 28.63 91
DPS Denpasar Bali Indonesia 27.94 34
SJO San Jose Costa Rica 27.72 37
DOH Doha Qatar 25.91 100
TAS Tashkent Uzbekistan 25.85 69
  1. The betweenness centrality scores show how many shortest paths go through an airport, thus they highlight the potential that airports might route infection flows, acting as ‘malaria hubs’. The degree measures how many routes are linked to an airport.