Rio Pardo settlement location. (A-B) The study took place in an agricultural settlement of Rio Pardo, in the northeast region of Amazonas State, Brazil. (C) Main access of community of Rio Pardo is via a paved road (BR-174) that connects the states of Amazonas and Roraima. (D) The settlement is comprised of households located along both sides of unpaved roads, which is a typical deforestation pattern in the Amazon . Rio Pardo outline by Sylvain JM Desmoulière – ILMD. (E) The temporal distribution of API of P. vivax in the Ramal and Igarapé areas occurred in the period, with the rainy season well defined: the rainy season (November–May) and the dry season (June–October). The annual mean temperature was 31°C and average annual rainfall was 2,000 mm per year. Arrow: indicates cross-sectional study period.