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Table 1 Model inputs and main sources

From: The economic costs of malaria in children in three sub-Saharan countries: Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya

Country and age range Clinical/Epidemiological data Treatment-seeking behaviour
  UM MO SA CerM* CerM + NS* CFR No treatment Health facility Pharmacy/ shop Traditional treatment
Ghana
2-15 months 0.64-1 [25] 0.06 [25] 0.006 [25] 0.015 [25] 0.12-0.15 0.0141 [25] 0.3 0.545 0.15 0.005
16-24 months 0.33-0.65 [25] 0.03 [25] 0.003 [25] 0.02 [25] 0.12-0.15 0.0157 [25]
0-24 months 0.65-1 [26] 0.05 [27] 0.03 [26] 0.022-0.08 [28, 29] 0.12-0.15 0.003**
3-18 months 0.84-1 [27] 0.05 [27] 0.44 [27] 0.022-0.08 [28, 29] 0.12-0.15 0.003**
3-59 months 0.51-0.63 [30] 0.004 [30] 0.02 [30] 0.022-0.08 [28, 29] 0.12-0.15 0.003**     
Tanzania
2-12 months 0.49 [31] 0.04 [32] 0.13 [31] 0.022-0.08 [28, 29] 0.12-0.15 0.0051** 0.26 0.62 0.1167 0.005
2-11 months 0.16-0.24 [32] 0.04 [32] 0.25 [32] 0.022-0.08 [28, 29] 0.12-0.15 0.0051**
12-23 months 0.39-0.50 [32] 0.05 [32] 0.24 [32] 0.022-0.08 [28, 29] 0.12-0.15 0.0051**
0-59 months 0.28 [33] 0.05 [32] 0.24 [32] 0.022-0.08 [28, 29] 0.12-0.15 0.0051**     
Kenya
0-12 months 0.14-1 [34] 0.21 [34] 0.23 [34] 0.022-0.08 [28, 29] 0.12-0.15 0.0053** 0.32 0.45 0.224 0.0086
10-24 months 0.17-1 [34] 0.21 [34] 0.23 [34] 0.022-0.08 [28, 29] 0.12-0.15 0.0053**
0-24 months 0.67-0.86 [35] 0.21 [34] 0.26 [35] 0.022-0.08 [28, 29] 0.12-0.15 0.0053**     
  1. Notes: All clinical/epidemiological values represent probabilities. UM uncomplicated malaria, MO malaria hospitalization, SA severe anaemia, CerM cerebral malaria, CerM + NS cerebral malaria and neurological sequelae, CFR case fatality rate: percentage of clinical cases with fatal outcome. *CerM represents the proportion of hospitalizations clinically considered as cerebral malaria while CerM + NS the proportion of CerM with neurological sequelae. **Most CFR were calculated as average ratios among number of malaria deaths in U5 children/number of malaria cases in U5 children taken from World Malaria Reports (from year 2000 up to 2009). Triangular distributions were used when only one value is presented (assuming a range of 15% lower and higher). Uniform distributions were used where two values are presented. Ranges for severe anemia were constructed based on Murphy et al.[36]. Main data sources on neurological sequelae were taken from Bassat et al.[28]. References for treatment-seeking behaviour are Demographic and Health surveys of each of the three countries [3739]. Values are the percentage of people who sought treatment among whom with fever in the two weeks previous the survey.