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Table 3 Correlation between clinical signs of hypovolaemia and invasive haemodynamic measures

From: The reliability of the physical examination to guide fluid therapy in adults with severe falciparum malaria: an observational study

   Number of observations GEDVI1 CI2 ELWI3
   mean (95% CI) mean (95% CI) mean (95% CI)
Mucous membranes Normal 132 572 (548 – 595) 3.57 (3.43 – 3.71) 9.6 (8.9 – 10.3)
Dry 297 562 (548 – 576) 3.42 (3.34 – 3.51) 9.8 (9.4 – 10.1)
Axillae Moist 253 571 (556–585) 3.47 (3.38 -3.57) 9.4 (9.0 -9.8)
Dry 177 556 (536–576) 3.46 (3.35 – 3.56) 10.1 (9.6 -10.7)
Tissue turgor Normal 409 560 (548 – 573) 3.5 (3.43 - 3.57) 9.7 (9.3- 10.0)
Decreased 21 643 (602 – 684)ɸ 2.83 (2.59 - 3.07) ɸ 10.8 (9.3 – 12.2)
Capillary return* Normal 371 566 (554–579) 3.52 (3.45 -3.59) 9.5 (9.2 – 9.9)
Reduced 30 504 (473–534) ɸ 2.84 (2.54 -3.14) ɸ 9.9 (8.4 – 11.5)
Heart rate* <100 bpm 269 575 (560 – 590) 3.43 (3.36 – 3.51) 9.3 (8.8 - 9.7)
≥100 bpm 150 543 (524 – 562) ɸ 3.51 (3.38 – 3.65) 10.0 (9.5 – 10.5) ɸ
Heart rate* <120 bpm 387 565 (552 – 578) 3.48 (3.41 – 3.55) 9.4 (9.1 – 9.7)
≥120 bpm 32 528 (497 – 560) 3.3 (2.93 - 3.66)Ʊ 11.4 (10.2 - 12.7) ɸ
  1. 1 Global end-diastolic volume index.
  2. 2 Cardiac index.
  3. 3 Extravascular lung water index.
  4. * In the absence of inotropic therapy.
  5. ɸ p < 0.01 for a difference.
  6. Ʊ p < 0.05 for a difference.