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Table 1 Personal variables of 154 VFR travellers to Ghana

From: Towards improved uptake of malaria chemoprophylaxis among West African travellers: identification of behavioural determinants

  Total N = 154 % Started CP N = 83 % Not started CP N = 71 % RR [CI] p-value
Sex, N (%) a         
Male 81 (52.6) 38 (45.8) 43 (60.6) 0.76 [0.56-1.02] 0.067
Age, N (%) b         
Mean 40.8   42.6   38.8    0.033
SD 12.7   12.8   12.4    
Missing N (%) 9 (5.8)       
Country of residence a        1.22 [0.91-1.64]  
North and Central America, N (%) 82 (53.2) 40 (48.2) 42 (59.2)   0.17
Europe, N (%) 72 (46.8) 43 (51.8) 29 (40.8)   
Country of birth in West Africac        0.76 [0.51-1.13]  
Ghana, N (%) 133 (86.4) 71 (85.5) 62 (87.3)   0.246
Other West African country1, N (%) 8 (5.2) 3   5    
    (3.6)   (7.0)   
Outside West Africa, N (%) 13 (8.4) 9 (10.8) 4 (5.6)   
Departure country of birth (Y) b         
Median 1997   1993   2001    
Interquartile range 1990-2002   1989-1999   1992-2007    <0.001
Traveller VFRs, N (%) 13 (8.4)       
Previous visit, N (%)a 139 (90.3) 78 (94.0) 61 (90.0) 1.35 [0.68-2.67] 0.09
Had malaria before a         
Yes, N (%) 85 (55.2) 37 (50.0) 48 (71.6) 0.66 [0.48-0.89] <0.001
No, N (%) 56 (36.4) 37   19 (28.4)   
Missing, N (%) 13 (8.4)   (50.0)     
Travel purpose, family affairs a         
Family affairs2, N (%) 134 (87.0) 78 (94.0) 56 (78.9) 2.33 [1.08-5.04] 0.005
Other3, N (%) 20 (13.0) 5 (6.0) 15 (21.1)   
Period West Africa >6 weeks a         
<6 weeks, N (%) 119 (77.3) 76 (91.6) 43 (63.2) 0.34 [0.18-0.67] <0.001
>6 weeks, N (%) 32 (20.8) 7   25    
Missing, N (%) 3 (1.9)   (8.4)   (36.8)   
  1. CP = chemoprophylaxis, RR = Relative risk, a p-value calculated using the chi-square test; b p-value calculated using the Mann–Whitney U test; c p-value calculated comparing those born in West Africa to those born outside West-Africa using chi square test.
  2. Significant differences are indicated in boldface.
  3. 1 Other countries of birth in West Africa were: Nigeria (three), Liberia (two), Cote d’Ivoire (one), Togo (one) and Sierra Leone (one).
  4. 2 Family affairs comprise VFR travel, funerals and weddings.
  5. 3 Other travel purposes are business (ten), holiday (four) and other (six).