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Table 3 Summary of anti-malarial terpenoids derived from the African flora, part 1: clerodanes, labdanes, limonoids, bisnorterpenes and acyclic triterpenes

From: The potential of anti-malarial compounds derived from African medicinal plants. Part I: A pharmacological evaluation of alkaloids and terpenoids

Compound subclass Isolated metabolites Plant species (Family) Part of plant studied Place of harvest (locality, country) Author, reference
Clerodane and labdane diterpenoids 64 to 70 Nuxia sphaerocephala (Loganiaceae) Leaves Ankazobe, Madagascar Mambu et al.[83]
71 to 74 Aframomum latifolium or sceptrum (Zingiberaceae) Fruits and Leaves Acrra, Ghana Duker-Eshun et al.[84]
75, 76 and 77 Turreanthus africanus (Meliaceae) Seeds Mt. Cameroon, Cameroon Ngemenya et al.[85]
78, 79, 80, and 81 Aframomum zambesiacum (Zingiberaceae) Seeds Nyasoso, Cameroon Kenmogne et al. [86]
74a, b, 82a and 83b Aframomum Seedsa Mogbi, Cameroona Ayimele et al. [87]a
escapum a Fruits and leavesb   
(Zingiberaceae) Aframomum latifolium and sceptrumb   Acrra, Ghanab Duker-Eshun et al.[84]b
84, 85, 86, and 87 Aframomum arundinaceum (Zingiberaceae) Seeds Maha, Cameroon Wabo et al.[88]
Limonoids 88 Vepris uguenensis (Rutaceae) Roots Baringo District, Kenya Cheplogoi et al.[73], Kiplimo [73]
89, 90, 91, 92, and 93 Khaya grandifoliola (Meliaceae) Bark and seeds Foumban, Cameroon Bickii et al.[89]
94 and 95 Entandrophragma angolense (Meliaceae) Stem bark Awae forest reserve, Cameroon Bickii et al.[90]
  96, 97, 98, and 99 Ekebergia capensis (Zingiberaceae) Stem bark Mt Kenya, Kenya Murata et al.[91]
Bisnorterpenes 100, 101, 102, and 103 Salacia madagascariensis (Celastraceae) Roots Tanzania Thiem et al.[92]
Acyclic triterpenes 104, 105, 106, and 107 Ekebergia capensis (Zingiberaceae) Stem bark Mt Kenya, Kenya Murata et al.[91]
108 Aframomum escapum (Zingiberaceae) Seeds Mogbi, Cameroon Ayimele et al. [87]
Lopez et al. [93]
  1. a,b and ccorrespond to the respective references.