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Table 4 Comparison of the association between signs/symptoms and malaria infection in symptomatic pregnant women and their matched controls

From: Clinical signs and symptoms cannot reliably predict Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in pregnant women living in an area of high seasonal transmission

   n/N (%) OR (95% CI) P value
Any symptom No 158/400 (40) Ref. ---
  Yes 95/200 (49) 1.47 (1.05-2.07) 0.03
Fever No 56/144 (39) Ref. ---
Yes 38/72 (53) 1.76 (0.99-3.11) 0.05
History of fever No 39/110 (35) Ref.  
Yes 27/55 (49) 1.76 (0.91-3.39) 0.09
Joint pain No 14/48 (29) 1.23 (0.40 - 3.76) 0.71
Yes 6/24 (25) ref ---
Headache No 84/208 (40) Ref.  
Yes 53/104 (51) 1.53 (0.96-2.46) 0.08
Dizziness No 39/76 (51) 1.17 (0.53-2.55) 0.69
Yes 18/38 (47) Ref ---
Vomiting No 9/16 (56) 2.14 (0.37-12.19) 0.39
Yes 3/8(37) ref  
Convulsions No 0 (0) -  
Yes 1/3 (33) -  
Malaise No 17/48 (35) 1.33 (0.46-3.84) 0.60
Yes 7/24 (29) ref  
Fever and No 84/230 (37) Ref.  
history of fever Yes 59/115 (51) 1.83 (1.16, 2.88) 0.01
Fever and No 131/340 (39) Ref.  
history of fever and headache Yes 86/170 (51) 1.63 (1.13, 2.37) 0.01