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Table 1 individual characteristics according to clinical status (n = 4 531, except other indication)

From: Environmental determinant of malaria cases among travellers

   Clinical malaria-free (n =4 400) Clinical malaria (n =131) p
Age (in years) *   25 [22–29] 25 [22–28] 0.43
Manager †     
  No 3 245 (74%) 109 (84%)  
  Yes 1 141 (26%) 21 (16%) 0.006
Year of stay †     
  2003 767 (17%) 8 (6%) 0.0001
  2004 1 926 (44%) 86 (66%) >0.0001
  2005 1 288 (29%) 29 (22%) 0.04
  2006 419 (10%) 8 (6%) 0.12
Number of sites visited during the stay †     
  <10 sites 3 377 (77%) 92 (70%)  
  ≥10 sites 1 023 (23%) 39 (30%) 0.05
Average length of stay by site †     
  <15 days 1341(30%) 41 (31%)  
  ≥15 days 3 059 (70%) 90 (69%) 0.45
Characteristics of the sites of stay     
Cumulated precipitation (mm of water) *   89 [67–122] 96 [71–157] 0.008
Mean Evapotranspiration (mm) *   113 [105–123] 111 [105–128,6] 0.50
Mean Water balance (mm) *   −36 [(−)62 - (+)13] −25 [(−)52 - (+)59] 0.008
Mean Minimum temperature (Celsius) *   20.3 [19.5-22.5] 20.0 [18.9-21.1] 0.0005
Mean temperature (Celsius) *   27.5 [25.3-27.5] 27.5 [25.2-27.5] 0.21
Mean Maximum temperature (Celsius) *   32.8 [31.5-35.5] 32,9 [31.4-35.7] 0.95
Mean number of Consecutive dry days § (in days/month) *   3.2 [1.9 – 7.0] 3.1 [1.1 – 6.3] 0.004
Proportion of time spent in urban area *   81 [23–100] 64 [15 – 89] 0.0007
NDVI mean (0 month of decay) *   0.39 [0.29 – 0.53] 0.39 [0.31 – 0.52] 0.65
NDVI mean (1 month of decay) *   0.38 [0.30 – 0.50] 0.39 [0.30 – 0.52] 0.44
NDVI mean (2 months of decay) *   0.38 [0.31 – 0.49] 0.41 [0.31 – 0.54] 0.07
  1. * : Median [interquartile range].
  2. †: Effectif (percent).
  3. $: Number of consecutive days in the month without rainfall.