Parasitaemia and survival rate of C57BL/6 mice co-infected with 100 or 200 S. japonicum cercariae and 1 × 106(A) or 1 × 105(B) P. berghei pRBCs after eight weeks. Intensities of S. japonicum cercariae in each panel are indicated as co-infection-200c and co-infection-100c, respectively. Mice infected with only P. berghei are indicated as P. berghei-mono. Malaria parasitaemia was monitored every day by staining blood samples from infected mice with Giemsa. Data are represented as mean ± SD. Rectangle boxes indicate periods susceptible to ECM. Significant differences between the groups in parasitaemia were determined by one-way ANOVA and survival was analysed using a Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) Test. #indicates P < 0.01. n = 5–6 mice per group. Results are representative of three independent experiments.