Malaria detection on hydrogel wax chips. (A) The ‘Gelcycler’, a custom-built, miniaturized real-time PCR instrument. (B) Raw SYBR green fluorescence images from positive and negative control wells in the wax chip. (C) Real-time PCR amplification curves and (D) melt curve analysis of the negative (gray) and positive (red) controls in (B). (E, F) Plasmodium DNA detected from clinical samples and a spiked P. knowlesi sample using PCR with conserved primers. Positive samples exhibit an amplification curve (E) and melt curve (F) at the appropriate melting temperature for each species.