Candidate genes differentially transcribed in any area. Clustering analysis was performed on the 27 transcripts showing a significant differential expression in any area and potentially involved in insecticide resistance. Clustering of transcripts was based on differences between mean Log2 ratios in each area versus reference using Euclidean distance and complete linkage algorithm. Colour scale (green to red) indicates fold change versus reference strain. Stars indicate a significant differential transcription compared to the susceptible reference strain Ifakara (P ≤ 0.001 and FC ≥ 3).