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Table 2 Factors associated with more than 7 days of hospital stay^ (Malaria cohort = 922)

From: Determinants of mortality, intensive care requirement and prolonged hospitalization in malaria – a tertiary care hospital based cohort study from South-Western India

Risk factors >7 days hospitalization % (event/total number) Odd ratio [95% confidence interval]* P - value* Adjusted odd ratio [95% confidence interval]* P - value*
Species of infection $
Plasmodium vivax 12 (70/585) Reference   Reference  
Plasmodium falciparum 38.3 (121/316) 4.57 [3.26 - 6.40] <0.001 3.15 [2.16 - 4.60] <0.001
Age
Up to 40 years 18.4 (115/626) Reference   
Between 41–60 years 30.2 (75/248) 1.99 [1.41 - 2.81] <0.001   
More than 60 years 22.9 (11/48) 1.39 [0.69 - 2.81] 0.36   
Gender
Male 20.8 (158/760) 1.37 [0.93 - 2.03] 0.11   
Female 26.5 (43/162) Reference   
More than 3 days of fever 25.9 (165/638) 2.62 [1.74 - 3.95] <0.001 2.12 [1.33 - 3.39] 0.002
Determinants of severity
Cerebral malaria 60 (15/25) 5.73 [2.53 - 12.95] <0.001   
Spontaneous bleeding 42.3 (30/71) 2.91 [ 1.76 - 4.79] <0.001   
Pulmonary oedema/ARDS 43.8 (28/64) 3.08 [1.83 - 5.18] <0.001   
Liver dysfunction 51.1 (24/47) 4.11 [2.27 - 7.45] <0.001   
Severe anaemia 50 (17/34) 3.81 [1.91 - 7.61] <0.001   
Haemoglobinuria 72 (18/25) 10.06 [4.14 - 24.45] <0.001 4.69 [1.63 - 13.56] 0.004
Renal failure 62.5 (30/48) 7.26 [ 3.91 - 13.46] <0.001 2.20 [1.06 - 4.55] 0.035
Respiratory distress 32.5 (13/40) 1.78 [0.90 - 3.51] 0.10   
Metabolic acidosis 61.5 (8/13) 5.93 [1.92 - 18.32] 0.002   
Hyperparasitaemia 40 (4/10) 2.42 [0.68 - 8.65] 0.18   
Hypoglycaemia 0 # # # #
Shock 54.5 (6/11) 4.40 [1.33 - 14.57] 0.02 4.88 [1.17 - 20.42] 0.03
Other abnormal lab parameters
Leucocytosis (≥11,000/mm3) 53.1 (26/49) 4.59 [2.54 - 8.30] <0.001 2.29 [1.13 - 4.64] 0.02
Leucopaenia (≤4,000/mm3) 20.7 (35/169) 0.89 [0.59 - 1.34] 0.57   
Severe thrombocytopaenia (≤40,000/mm3) 37.3 (76/204) 0.36 [0.25 - 0.51] <0.001 1.93 [1.29 - 2.88] 0.001
  1. *Confidence intervals that do not overlap the null value of odds ratio = 1, and P-value <0.05 are shown in bold font.
  2. #Statistics could not be computed.
  3. ^Patients with mortality outcome were excluded from analysis.
  4. $Mixed infection was excluded due to insufficient cohort size.