Monthly rainfall and notifications of Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium knowlesi , for the districts of Kudat, Keningau, Tawau, Sandakan, and Kota Kinabalu. For illustrative purposes this figure excludes all data for Ranau as data are only available from July 2012, and all data from Jan-Jul 2009 as rainfall data from Keningau is not available from this time. Calculation of Spearman’s correlation coefficients includes all available data. Spearman’s correlation coefficients for association between monthly rainfall and notifications of P. malariae/P. knowlesi: 0.37 (p = 0.004), 0.32 (p = 0.016) and 0.30 (p = 0.024) for months 2, 3 and 4, respectively, following the rainfall.