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Table 1 Iron absorption, iron and inflammation parameters among Malawian toddlers after anti-malarial treatment

From: The effect of timing of iron supplementation on iron absorption and haemoglobin in post-malaria anaemia: a longitudinal stable isotope study in Malawian toddlers

   1. visit 2. visit 3. visit 4. visit 5. visit 6. visit 7. visit
   0 weeks 2 weeks 4 weeks 6 weeks 8 weeks 10 weeks 12 weeks
Absorption (geometric mean%, 95% CI)      
  A 9.0a (7.4-11.0) 8.8a,c (6.5-11.8) N.A. N.A. 3.1b (2.1-4.7) N.A. N.A.
  B N.A. 11.5a (10.0-13.1) 5.7c,d (3.9-8.5) N.A. N.A. 3.9b,d (2.4-6.4) N.A.
Haemoglobin concentration (g/L, mean, ±SD)
  A 84a ± 7 104b ± 9 113d ± 10 116d ± 9 111c,d ± 12 114d ± 13 N.A.
  B* 80a ± 9 100b ± 9 106c ± 12 108c ± 11 109c,d ± 13 114d ± 14 111c,d ± 12
Plasma ferritin (μg/L, median, 25th 75th)      
  A 189a (142–263) 57b,c,d (36–94) 56b,c,d (38–84) 49b,c,d (40–90) 49b,c (34–64) 45b,c (30–69) N.A.
  B N.A. 39c (14–52) 46c,b (28–102) 57b,d (34–88) 66b,d (37–99) 77b,d (45–169) 102d (56–163)
C-reactive protein (mg/L, median, 25th 75th)      
  A 36.7a (24.2-44.8) 1.6b (0.5-3.3) 3.6b (0.5-10.3) 1.6b (0.8-5.1) 2.1b (0.8-9.1) 1.4b (0.7-5.0) N.A.
  B N.A. 2.5b (1.3-7.3) 2.2b (0.6-4.4) 4.3b (1.8-10.9) 3.3b (0.8-7.9) 1.1b (0.6-5.9) 4.3b (2.9-8.5)
AGP (g/L, median, 25th 75th)       
  A 1.86a (1.56-1.98) 1.05b (0.88-1.52) 0.98b (0.88-1.27) 1.07b (0.69-1.23) 1.09b (0.83-1.38) 1.02b (0.66-1.25) N.A.
  B N.A. 1.25b (0.96-1.55) 1.06b,c (0.70-1.37) 1.07b,c(0.84-1.6) 1.01b,c (0.80-1.37) 0.86c (0.69-1.14) 1.10b,c (0.89-1.33)
  1. Malawian toddlers presenting with post-malarial anaemia were supplemented with 30 mg iron for 8 weeks, either directly after malaria treatment (group A, n = 24) or starting with a 2-week delay (group B, n = 24). Children received a dose of a stable iron isotope (57Fe) at three occasions, i.e. group A at week 0, 2 and 8 and group B at week 2, 4 and 10. Iron and inflammation parameters are stratified by iron supplementation group and visits. Abbreviations: AGP, α1-acid glycoprotein; CI, confidence interval; N.A., not applicable; SD, standard deviation.
  2. a,b,c,dIf two mean/median values within one parameter carry the same superscript letter, they are not significantly different, i.e. P > 0.05. Different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) within and between groups A and B for iron absorption, iron and inflammation parameters were assessed with random effect models.
  3. *Haemoglobin concentration measured with HemoCue 201 in group B at visit 1.