Probability of malaria parasite infection as a function of time during and after pregnancy. The upper panel shows data points per pregnancy and/or post-pregnancy over time (filled dots: malaria positive, open dots: malaria negative). Pregnancies and post pregnancies are referred to by the mother’s name (three-letter abbreviation) and ranked by increasing age of the mother at infant birth. The lower panel shows the probability of malaria parasite infection as a function of gestational age (bottom left) or age of the infant after birth (bottom right; age in days). The points depict the proportion of samples tested positive, the area of the points corresponds to the number of samples tested in the respective age class and the dashed lines show the probability of malaria positivity per 200,000 units mitochondrial mammal DNA.