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Table 1 Military malaria surveillance statistics 1914 – 1918

From: Malaria’s contribution to World War One – the unexpected adversary

Military forces Location Years Military case (n) and incidence estimates Military deaths (n) Case fatality, % Military population exposed (n) Malaria speciesa References
Europe and Middle East      
British Macedonia and Salonika plain 1916 (Oct) -1918 162,517, 369 per 1000c 787 0.2-0.48 404,207b – 549,111 Mostly Pv [16], ([2] p2, p80),
British, French 150,000, Serbs 200,000   [1, 17]
French Macedonia 1916–1917 66,271 667 2.10d    [1821]
British North Russia 1918–1919 35, 8.7 per 1000, 32,688 ?   22,258 Pv, Pf ([2] p2,p80)
German, Bulgarian Balkans 1915–1918 113 per 1000   -- 380,000 - 462,000 Pv [22, 23]
  Macedonia 1916-1917 21,672 ? 0.92 -- Mostly Pv Pf, Pm Pv, Pf [19, 22]
British, French Italy 1917-1918 7373 (40% relapses) ? -- 145,764 - 210,943 Pv, Pf ([2] p2,p80),
Italian   1915-1918 Many thousands ? 0.03-1.3    [6, 12]
Australian Desert Mounted Corps Palestine 1918 (May-Dec) Of 19,652 illnesses, 6,347 slide positive    40,000 Mostly Pf [24]
  Palestine 1918 (Sept-Oct) 1940 98 5.05e    [24]
British & Dominion Egypt and Palestine 1914–1918 40,144 854 f 2.13 1,192,511 Pv, Pf ([2] p80), [24]
British Palestine 1918 (Apr-Sept) 7,270    70,000   [25]
Turkish Ottoman territory 1914-1918 412,000 - 461,799 20,000 -23,351 4.8 350,000 Pv, Pf [26, 27]
German Ottoman territory 1915-July 1918 4,763, 308 per 1000 ? -- 5540   [22], ([28] p231)
German Dardanelles Apr 1915-Jan 1916 200 per 1000g ? -- 1000   ([28] p231), [29]
Mixed allied force Mesopotamia 1914-1918 59,323 284 h 0.76 889,702 – 969,388 Mostly Pv ([2] p2 p80)
  Kuwait, Nasiriya 1915–1917 1,365, main admission ? -- 468,987 - 489,000   [10]
  Dardanelles Apr 1915-Jan 1916 1,473 5 0.34    [1], ([2] p80)
Western Front: Allied & United States North-East France and Belgium 1914-1918 9,022, outbreaks of <20 14 0.16 5,399,563 - 6,843,563 Mostly Pv ([30] p75,p115), ([2] p80), [31], ([32] p439-441)
Western Front: German   1914-1918 11,222, <1 per 1000 ? -- 5,200,000 Pv, Pf [22], ([32] p439), [33]
Eastern Front Allied: Russian, Romanian Russia, Romania, Armenia, Georgia. Anatolia, Albania 1915-1916 Albanian armies suffered severely from malaria ? -- 525,000 i Pv, Pf, Pm ([30], p153),
[21, 34, 35]
Eastern Front Axis: German Galicia and Anatolia 1914–1918 29,952 ? ? k 228,000 – 750,000j   [22, 28] p137, [35]
5.1 per 1000
Turkish, Austro-Hungarian Yugoslavia 1917-1918 128 per 1000 ? -- 270,000 – 1,045,050   ([30] p47), ([36] p399)
Evacuations to England from Europe and Africa UK 1917-1918 34,000, 500 local cases in Southern England 323 0.95 ≥34,000 Pv, Pf ([17] p140), [37]
Outside Europe and Middle East  
British expeditionary East Africa, Kenya, Tanganyika 1915-1918 145,850 troops and 68,914 indigenous, 51.000 hospitalized, 126 per 1000(troops), 20 per 1000 (others) 831 troops with 2839 indigenous 0.57 250,000 British (75,366) and indigenous with 150,000 Indian Mostly Pf [2] p2, p80, [39]
4.12
  South-West Africa 1914–1915 518 2 0.39 33,000 Mostly Pf ([2] p2, p80)
  Cameroon 1915–1916 2410 5 0.21 3000 Pf [14, 40]
  Sierra Leone 1914 401, 1839 per 1000 ? 0 ? 0.00 218 Pf [41]
German expeditionary Togo, East and South-West Africa 1914-1918 Lower incidence as mostly indigenous forces used ? -- 18,000 l, 3000 German troops, remainder indigenous Mostly Pf [35, 42]
USA naval Americas, Caribbean 1917-1918 4,746 hospital cases, 68,373 man-sick days 7 0.15 -- Mixed [43]
  1. Dashed indicate information not identified, and question mark unknown mortality case numbers.
  2. aPv: Plasmodium vivax; Pf: Plasmodium falciparum; Pm: Plasmodium malariae.
  3. bEstimate includes British, French, Serbian, and Russian troops.
  4. c13.7% in British troops; 27.4% in Indian troops.
  5. dOf 100 autopsies of influenza pneumonia, 83 showed definite evidence of previous malaria [19].
  6. eEstimated from graphic data from all cases in Sept-Oct and deaths reported in October [24].
  7. fDeaths due to P.falciparum infections. Confirmed diagnoses in 32 of 67 autopsies; many complicated by dual infection with influenza bronchopneumonia [44].
  8. gEstimate for German troops only.
  9. hDeaths for years 1917–1918 only.
  10. iBrusilov offensive 1915–1916.
  11. jRusso-Turkish offensive winter 1915 – 1916.
  12. kOf 2,873,000 men mobilized on the Turkish side in Ottoman territory, approximately 466,759 died of disease [28].
  13. lEstimate for East African German forces.