
P. falciparuminfection status

P. falciparumparasitaemia (parasites/μl of blood)



Logistic regression model

Logistic regression model with random effect

Negative binomial regression model

Negative binomial regression model with random effect



Adjusted OR (95% CI)

pvalue

Adjusted OR (95% CI)

pvalue

Adjusted IRR (95% CI)

pvalue

Adjusted IRR (95% CI)

pvalue


Net usage
        
Bed net ownership

1.01 (0.85, 1.20)

0.911

0.97 (0.81, 1.16)

0.747

0.88 (0.73, 1.05)

0.155

1.00 (0.92, 1.09)

0.958

Children sleeping under a net

0.99 (0.76, 1.29)

0.950

1.03 (0.78, 1.37)

0.814

1.09 (0.83, 1.44)

0.545

1.04 (0.91, 1.19)

0.529

Children slept under a net last night

0.99 (0.76, 1.28)

0.936

0.90 (0.69, 1.18)

0.449

0.98 (0.74, 1.29)

0.881

0.95 (0.83, 1.08)

0.447

Other preventive measures against malaria
        
Fumigating coil

1.14 (0.99, 1.32)

0.074

1.20 (1.03, 1.40)

0.018*

1.06 (0.91, 1.24)

0.459

1.09 (1.01, 1.17)

0.029*

Insecticide spray

0.78 (0.68, 0.90)

0.001*

0.83 (0.71, 0.97)

0.017*

0.95 (0.81, 1.12)

0.570

0.84 (0.78, 0.91)

<0.001*

Smoke by burning leaves

1.26 (1.07, 1.49)

0.006*

1.26 (1.05, 1.51)

0.013*

1.06 (0.90, 1.26)

0.478

1.06 (0.98, 1.15)

0.168

Malaria treatment

0.85 (0.72, 1.00)

0.051

0.83 (0.70, 0.99)

0.036*

0.97 (0.81, 1.17)

0.775

0.93 (0.85, 1.02)

0.112

Distance to nearest health facility
^{a}
        
<1 km

1.00
 
1.00
 
1.00
 
1.00
 
15 km

0.76 (0.61, 0.94)

0.012*

0.80 (0.49, 1.29)

0.357

0.71 (0.57, 0.90)

0.005*

0.96 (0.85, 1.08)

0.451

>5 km

0.77 (0.64, 0.92)

0.005*

0.78 (0.52, 1.16)

0.219

0.80 (0.66, 0.96)

0.019*

0.86 (0.78, 0.94)

0.002*

 *Statistically significant (p < 0.05).

^{a}Distance to nearest health facility (<1 km as reference).
 OR: odds ratio.
 IRR: incidence rate ratio.
 Models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status and setting.
 Random effects were introduced for school location.