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Table 4 Results from multivariate regression models on Plasmodium falciparum infection status and parasitaemia with covariates on prevention and treatment against malaria, and distance to nearest health facility

From: Disparities of Plasmodium falciparum infection, malaria-related morbidity and access to malaria prevention and treatment among school-aged children: a national cross-sectional survey in Côte d’Ivoire

  P. falciparuminfection status P. falciparumparasitaemia (parasites/μl of blood)
  Logistic regression model Logistic regression model with random effect Negative binomial regression model Negative binomial regression model with random effect
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted IRR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted IRR (95% CI) p-value
Net usage         
 Bed net ownership 1.01 (0.85, 1.20) 0.911 0.97 (0.81, 1.16) 0.747 0.88 (0.73, 1.05) 0.155 1.00 (0.92, 1.09) 0.958
 Children sleeping under a net 0.99 (0.76, 1.29) 0.950 1.03 (0.78, 1.37) 0.814 1.09 (0.83, 1.44) 0.545 1.04 (0.91, 1.19) 0.529
 Children slept under a net last night 0.99 (0.76, 1.28) 0.936 0.90 (0.69, 1.18) 0.449 0.98 (0.74, 1.29) 0.881 0.95 (0.83, 1.08) 0.447
Other preventive measures against malaria         
 Fumigating coil 1.14 (0.99, 1.32) 0.074 1.20 (1.03, 1.40) 0.018* 1.06 (0.91, 1.24) 0.459 1.09 (1.01, 1.17) 0.029*
 Insecticide spray 0.78 (0.68, 0.90) 0.001* 0.83 (0.71, 0.97) 0.017* 0.95 (0.81, 1.12) 0.570 0.84 (0.78, 0.91) <0.001*
 Smoke by burning leaves 1.26 (1.07, 1.49) 0.006* 1.26 (1.05, 1.51) 0.013* 1.06 (0.90, 1.26) 0.478 1.06 (0.98, 1.15) 0.168
Malaria treatment 0.85 (0.72, 1.00) 0.051 0.83 (0.70, 0.99) 0.036* 0.97 (0.81, 1.17) 0.775 0.93 (0.85, 1.02) 0.112
Distance to nearest health facility a         
 <1 km 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 1-5 km 0.76 (0.61, 0.94) 0.012* 0.80 (0.49, 1.29) 0.357 0.71 (0.57, 0.90) 0.005* 0.96 (0.85, 1.08) 0.451
 >5 km 0.77 (0.64, 0.92) 0.005* 0.78 (0.52, 1.16) 0.219 0.80 (0.66, 0.96) 0.019* 0.86 (0.78, 0.94) 0.002*
  1. *Statistically significant (p < 0.05).
  2. aDistance to nearest health facility (<1 km as reference).
  3. OR: odds ratio.
  4. IRR: incidence rate ratio.
  5. Models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status and setting.
  6. Random effects were introduced for school location.