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Table 2 Seasonal mean temperature correlated with malaria cases in 1800–1870

From: Endemic malaria: an 'indoor' disease in northern Europe. Historical data analysed

Season correlated with malaria cases in 1800–1870 Source of temperature series
  Helsinki 1830–1870 41 years Tornedalen 1818–1870 53 years Stockholm 1800–1870 71 years St. Petersburg 1806–1870 65 years
malaria year-1; winter -0.1932 -0.1209 -0.1652 -0.0789
malaria year-1; spring -0.0091 -0.0228 0.0248 -0.0312
malaria year-1; summer 0.5120 *** 0.5208 *** 0.4708 *** 0.3981 ***
malaria year-1; autumn 0.1218 0.1621 0.1055 0.1598
malaria year; winter -0.1254 -0.0743 -0.1214 -0.1543
malaria year; spring 0.1140 0.0880 0.0223 0.0546
malaria year; summer -0.0740 -0.0332 0.0201 -0.0439
malaria year; autumn -0.0831 -0.0819 -0.0211 -0.0797