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Table 2 Seasonal mean temperature correlated with malaria cases in 1800–1870

From: Endemic malaria: an 'indoor' disease in northern Europe. Historical data analysed

Season correlated with malaria cases in 1800–1870 Source of temperature series
  Helsinki 1830–1870
41 years
Tornedalen 1818–1870
53 years
Stockholm 1800–1870
71 years
St. Petersburg 1806–1870
65 years
malaria year-1; winter -0.1932 -0.1209 -0.1652 -0.0789
malaria year-1; spring -0.0091 -0.0228 0.0248 -0.0312
malaria year-1; summer 0.5120 *** 0.5208 *** 0.4708 *** 0.3981 ***
malaria year-1; autumn 0.1218 0.1621 0.1055 0.1598
malaria year; winter -0.1254 -0.0743 -0.1214 -0.1543
malaria year; spring 0.1140 0.0880 0.0223 0.0546
malaria year; summer -0.0740 -0.0332 0.0201 -0.0439
malaria year; autumn -0.0831 -0.0819 -0.0211 -0.0797