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Table 4 Reported perceived causes and the single most important cause for MRI with and without convulsions

From: Community concepts of malaria-related illness with and without convulsions in southern Ghana

Perceived causes reported1 How reported2 Most important
  With convulsion (n = 101) Without convulsion (n = 100) With convulsion (n = 101) Without convulsion (n = 100)
  Total (%) Fraction Spont. Total (%) Fraction Spont.   
Insect bites       
Mosquito bite 44.4 0.24 94.0 0.48** 6.9 35.0**
Infections & malaria-related 95.1 0.64 73.0 0.07** 43.6 1.0**
Phlegm 77.1 0.41 24.0 0.04** 15.8 0.0**
Atridii/asra/malaria 57.4 0.54 0.0 0.00** 13.9 0.0**
Worm infections 58.2 0.17 68.0 0.06 13.9 1.0**
Exposure 39.6 0.67 89.0 0.63** 9.9 33.0**
Heat from the sun or fire 27.8 0.75 81.0 0.68** 8.9 31.0**
Airborne/exposure 16.9 0.41 22.0 0.14 1.0 2.0
Sanitation & hygiene 58.4 0.63 90.0 0.51** 10.0 11.0
Personal hygiene 36.8 0.78 51.0 0.65* 5.0 4.0
Sanitation 25.9 0.73 30.0 0.73 4.0 4.0
Playing on the ground 21.9 0.46 43.0 0.37** 1.0 0.0
Houseflies 34.7 0.14 78.0 0.13** 0.0 3.0*
Supernatural 84.2 0.35 79.0 0.04** 19.8 1.0**
Spirits 78.3 0.38 63.0 0.02** 19.8 1.0**
Evil eyes or sorcery 50.4 0.24 41.0 0.00** 0.0 0.0
Food and drink 36.7 0.38 96.0 0.41** 2.0 18.0**
Eating unbalanced diet 0.0 0.00 17.0 0.12** 2.0 3.0
Fatty/oily food 26.8 0.15 84.0 0.12** 0.0 8.0**
Eating unripe fruits 12.9 0.00 72.0 0.08 0.0 6.0**
Impure water 11.8 0.83 31.0 0.39** 0.0 1.0
  1. 1 Perceived causes analysed as groups (in bold) based on reported categories that follow.
  2. *p ≤ 0.10 and ** p ≤ 0.05. Wilcoxon test for comparison of prominence of reported categories (2 = spontaneous, 1 = probed response, 0 = not reported), and Fisher's exact test for most important perceived causes.
  3. 2Column values indicate frequency of reported categories and the fraction of these reported spontaneously.
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