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Table 4 Prevalences of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and maternal anaemia according to diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum

From: Detection and clinical manifestation of placental malaria in southern Ghana

Diagnostic tool No. Low birth weight Preterm delivery Anaemia
   % OR (95%CI) P % OR (95%CI) P % OR (95%CI) P
Peripheral blood
Microscopy
   Negative 680 15.8    18.4    32.9   
   Positive 159 17.0 1.1 (0.7–1.8) ns 20.3 1.1 (0.7–1.8) ns 44.7 1.6 (1.1–2.4) 0.005
HRP2 test
   Negative 553 14.3    16.5    29.5   
   Positive 286 19.4 1.4 (1.0–2.1) 0.06 23.1 1.5 (1.1–2.2) 0.02 46.2 2.1 (1.5–2.8) <0.0001
PCR
   Negative 395 14.2    17.9    25.6   
   Positive 444 17.6 1.3 (0.9–1.9) ns 19.6 1.1 (0.8–1.6) ns 43.7 2.3 (1.7–3.1) <0.0001
HRP2 test if microscopy negative
   Negative 542 14.2    16.5    29.3   
   Positive 138 21.9 1.7 (1.0–2.8) 0.03 26.1 1.8 (1.1–2.9) 0.01 47.1 2.1 (1.4–3.2) <0.0001
PCR if microscopy negative
   Negative 394 14.2    17.9    25.6   
   Positive 286 17.9 1.3 (0.9–2.0) ns 19.1 1.1 (0.7–1.6) ns 43.0 2.2 (1.6–3.1) <0.0001
Placental blood
Microscopy
   Negative 546 14.3    17.7    28.8   
   Positive 293 19.2 1.4 (1.0–2.1) 0.07 20.8 1.2 (0.8–1.8) ns 47.1 2.2 (1.6–3.0) <0.0001
Haemozoin
   Negative 580 13.6    16.5    27.8   
   Positive 259 21.3 1.7 (1.2–2.6) 0.005 23.9 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 0.01 51.7 2.8 (2.0–3.8) <0.0001
HRP2 test
   Negative 497 12.9    16.0    27.0   
   Positive 342 20.5 1.8 (1.2–2.6) 0.003 22.8 1.6 (1.1–2.2) 0.01 47.1 2.4 (1.8–3.3) <0.0001
PCR
   Negative 341 13.5    17.5    23.8   
   Positive 498 17.7 1.4 (0.9–2.1) ns 19.7 1.2 (0.8–1.7) ns 43.0 2.4 (1.8–3.3) <0.0001
Stage of infection
   None 482 13.5    16.7    27.0   
   Resolved 64 20.3 1.6 (0.8–3.3) ns 25.0 1.7 (0.9–3.2) ns 42.2 2.0 (1.1–3.5) 0.01
   Late 195 21.6 1.8 (1.1–2.8) 0.009 23.6 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 0.04 54.9 3.3 (2.3–4.7) <0.0001
   Early 98 14.3 1.1 (0.6–2.1) ns 15.5 0.9 (0.5–1.7) ns 31.6 1.3 (0.8–2.1) ns
  1. OR, odds ratio, 95%CI, 95% confidence interval; ns, not significant, P > 0.1