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Table 2 Net Use among Children Less than 5, Central & Eastern Regions, Ghana 2004

From: Who sleeps under bednets in Ghana? A doer/non-doer analysis of malaria prevention behaviours

Characteristic Doers Non-Doers p
  n = 97 % n = 803 %  
Respondent's age      .2452
15–24 17 17.5 149 18.6  
25–34 50 51.6 358 44.6  
35–44 27 27.8 228 28.4  
45–49 3 3.1 68 8.5  
Live in Eastern region 80 82.5 375 46.7 <.0001
Belong to a credit association 41 42.3 386 48.1 .2798
Highest level of schooling attended      .2406
No school 19 19.8 143 17.9  
Primary 26 27.1 185 23.2  
Junior secondary/middle 41 42.7 419 52.4  
Senior secondary/vocational/higher 10 10.4 52 6.5  
Household size      .2192
1–3 16 16.5 110 13.7  
4–5 29 29.9 299 37.2  
6–7 38 39.2 247 30.8  
8 or more 14 14.4 147 18.3  
Religion      .6839
Christian 88 90.7 707 89.4  
Muslim/other 9 9.3 84 10.6  
Water supply      .0174
Piped in/covered well in yard 2 2.1 29 3.6  
Public tap/borehole 67 69.1 635 79.2  
Open water source 28 28.9 138 17.2  
Toilet facility      .0015
Public latrine 42 43.3 472 59.1  
Private toilet/latrine 34 35.1 241 30.2  
Bush 21 21.7 86 10.8  
Received antenatal care during last pregnancy 95 97.9 776 97.6 .8405
Received professional antenatal care during last pregnancy 93 97.9 758 97.7 .8953
Food security      .0324
Food secure 63 66.3 432 55.4  
Food insecure without hunger 20 21.1 158 20.3  
Food insecure with hunger 12 12.6 190 24.4  
   Believe mosquito bites cause malaria 94 96.9 765 95.3 .6109*
   Believe staying in the sun too long causes malaria 36 37.1 343 42.7 .2912
   Believe working too close to fire causes malaria 14 14.4 118 14.7 .9451
   Believe overworking yourself causes malaria 20 20.6 99 12.3 .0228
   Believe in spiritual/superstitious causes of malaria 2 2.1 16 2.0 .9633
   Believe in other causes of malaria 19 19.6 163 20.3 .8692
   Do not know what causes malaria 1 1.0 13 1.6 .6585
   Believe in the correct cause of malaria (mosquito bites only) 22 22.7 247 30.9 .0962
   Believe sleeping under an ITN is protective against malaria 87 89.7 618 77.0 .0040
   Believe mosquito coils are protective against malaria 48 49.5 490 61.0 .0286
   Believe clearing bushes around the house is protective against malaria 56 57.7 387 48.2 .0759
   Believe wearing clothes to cover the body is protective against malaria 7 7.2 72 9.0 .5651
   Believe disturbing mosquito hiding places is protective against malaria 8 8.3 65 8.1 .9585
   Believe in other protective methods against malaria 8 8.3 132 16.4 .0355
   Do not know protective methods against malaria 2 2.1 19 2.4 .8513
   Believe that the best way to prevent malaria is:      .0042
Using an ITN 88 90.7 613 76.6  
Other good alternatives 4 4.1 125 15.6  
Don't know 5 5.2 62 7.8  
   Believe fever is a sign/symptom of malaria 70 72.2 555 69.1 .5380
   Believe vomiting is a sign/symptom of malaria 62 63.9 449 55.9 .1329
   Believe yellowish/dark urine is a sign/symptom of malaria 39 40.2 407 50.7 .0512
   Believe a lack of appetite is a sign/symptom of malaria 45 46.4 314 39.1 .1661
   Believe chills is a sign/symptom of malaria 17 17.5 175 21.8 .3325
   Believe diarrhoea is a sign/symptom of malaria 8 8.3 114 14.2 .1059
   Believe headache is a sign/symptom of malaria 8 8.3 113 14.1 .1122
   Believe joint pain or bone pain is a sign/symptom of malaria 11 11.3 96 12.0 .8597
   Believe dizziness is a sign/symptom of malaria 3 3.1 70 8.7 .0731*
   Believe constipation is a sign/symptom of malaria 2 2.1 23 2.9 .6497
   Believe in other signs/symptoms of malaria 11 11.3 123 15.3 .2986
   Believe that a child with fever needs to complete a full course of treatment even if his conditions improve 87 89.7 632 79.3 .0149
   Believe that children <5 are most vulnerable to malaria 82 84.5 694 86.4 .6100
   Believe that children 6–14 years old are most vulnerable to malaria 11 11.3 108 13.5 .5624
   Believe that pregnant women are most vulnerable to malaria 55 56.7 470 58.5 .7299
   Believe that women of reproductive age (15–49) are most vulnerable to malaria 9 9.3 70 8.7 .8537
   Believe that adolescent boys (15–18 yrs) are most vulnerable to malaria 3 3.1 44 5.5 .4674*
   Believe that adult males (above 18 yrs) are most vulnerable to malaria 16 16.5 60 7.5 .0025
   Believe that everyone is most vulnerable to malaria 24 24.7 115 14.3 .0073
   Do not know who is most vulnerable to malaria 1 1.0 17 2.1 .7104*
   Believe that only children <5 years are most vulnerable to malaria 9 9.3 133 16.6 .0630
   Believe that only pregnant women are most vulnerable to malaria 1 1.0 22 2.7 .4998*
   Believe that only children <5 and pregnant women are most vulnerable to malaria 21 21.7 216 26.9 .2675
   Believe that malaria during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage/abortion 63 65.0 494 61.5 .5113
   Believe that malaria during pregnancy can lead to death 57 58.8 477 59.4 .9036
   Believe that malaria during pregnancy can lead to premature delivery 35 36.1 286 35.6 .9279
   Believe that malaria during pregnancy can lead to anaemia 13 13.4 152 18.9 .1839
   Believe that malaria during pregnancy can lead to profuse bleeding 13 13.4 123 15.3 .6188
   Believe that malaria during pregnancy can lead to something else 4 4.1 35 4.4 .9145
   Do not know any consequences of malaria during pregnancy 6 6.2 22 2.7 .1099*
   Believe that starting antenatal care once pregnant is protective against malaria during pregnancy 63 65.0 542 67.5 .6135
   Believe that sleeping under an ITN is protective against malaria during pregnancy 53 54.6 363 45.2 .0784
   Believe that eating good food/a balanced diet is protective against malaria during pregnancy 43 44.3 372 46.3 .7095
   Believe that keeping surroundings clean is protective against malaria during pregnancy 40 41.2 232 28.9 .0124
   Believe that taking antimalarials as directed is protective against malaria during pregnancy 15 15.5 155 19.3 .3616
   Believe that treating worm infestations is protective against malaria during pregnancy 3 3.1 41 5.1 .6154*
   Believe that something else is protective against malaria during pregnancy 4 4.1 82 10.2 .0653*
   Do not know of any ways to protect against malaria during pregnancy 4 4.1 10 1.3 .0544*
   Believe that pregnant women can have malaria without knowing or showing signs of it 46 47.9 413 52.5 .3915
  1. *Fisher's Exact